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Using Celebrities in Abnormal Psychology as Teaching Tools to Decrease Stigma and Increase Help Seeking, Teaching of Psychology, 2016, 10.1177/0098628316662765
7 Comments → add new, Anne Ferrari
Research shows that a very small percentage of those who suffer from mental illness seek professional help and fear of stigma is a principal factor why individuals are reluctant to obtain assistance. This study evaluated whether using examples of celebrities’ experiences with mental illness as a form of “contact” with a mentally ill person would reduce public stigma toward mental illness as well as stigma toward obtaining psychological assistance. Data were collected using a pre–post design from 38 (experimental group) and 17 (control group) college undergraduate students enrolled in an abnormal psychology course. Compared to the control group, the use of celebrities as narratives to teach about mental illness resulted in reduced public stigma toward mental illness and reduced stigma toward seeking help.
Notes and News, The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 1936, 10.1577/1548-8640(1936)316[19:nan]2.0.co;2
1 Comment → add new
From Hyperactive Children to ADHD Adults: Observations on the Expansion of Medical Categories, Social Problems, 2000, 10.2307/3097135
2 Comments → add new, Peter Conrad, Deborah Potter
Identification of new high mobility group A1 associated proteins, PROTEOMICS, 2007, 10.1002/pmic.200700148
12 Comments → add new, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni, Francesco Esposito, Stéphane Giraud, Willy Vincent Bienvenut, Jean Jacques Diaz, Alfredo Fusco
High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins (HMGA1a, HMGA1b, HMGA1c and HMGA2) are nonhistone chromosomal proteins that do not have transcriptional activity per se, but they orchestrate the assembly of multiprotein complexes involved in gene transcription, replication and chromatin structure through a complex network of protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions. To better understand their mechanisms of action, we have used a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 1‐D gel SDS‐PAGE and MS to identify new potential molecular interactors. We have found 11 proteins that associate with HMGA1. These proteins belong to three different classes: mRNA processing proteins, RNA helicases and protein chaperones. Some interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and pull‐down experiments in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. These experimental data suggest that HMGA1 proteins can associate with proteins that are strictly involved in chromatin structure and in several important mRNA processing steps, supporting the idea that HMGA1 proteins can also participate in these events.
Pro-generics policies and the backlog in medicines registration in South Africa: implications for access to essential and affordable medicines, Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal, 2015, 10.5639/gabij.2015.0402.014
6 Comments → add new, Henry MJ Leng, David Sanders, Allyson M Pollock
Molecular Biology of Brain Metastasis, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2014, 10.3390/ijms15069519
3 Comments → add new, Konstantina Svokos, Bodour Salhia, Steven Toms
Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic cancer. As the length of survival in patients with systemic cancer improves, thanks to multimodality therapies, focusing on metastases to the CNS becomes of paramount importance. Unique interactions between the brain’s micro-environment, blood-brain barrier, and tumor cells are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. This review will focus on the pathophysiology, epigenetics, and immunobiology of brain metastases in order to understand the metastatic cascade. Cancer cells escape the primary tumor, intravasate into blood vessels, survive the hematogenous dissemination to the CNS, arrest in brain capillaries, extravasate, proliferate, and develop angiogenic abilities to establish metastases. Molecular biology, genetics, and epigenetics are rapidly expanding, enabling us to advance our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms involved. Research approaches using cell lines that preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain and in vitro tissue-based studies unfold new molecular leads into the disease. It is important to identify and understand the molecular pathways of the metastatic cascade in order to target the investigation and development of more effective therapies and research directions.
Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives, Energies, 2014, 10.3390/en7063512
22 Comments → add new, Mohammad Karbaschian, Dirk Söffker, Mohammad Ali Karbaschian
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.
Growth Impact and Determinants of Foreing Direct Investment in Kosovo, Journal of Macroeconomic Dynamics Research, 2013, 10.12966/jmdr.11.01.2013
4 Comments → add new, Nakije Kida
The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2015, 10.1007/s00414-015-1279-y
5 Comments → add new, Marcus L. Warner, Nellie C. Kaufman, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction. Available literature was reviewed for M. speciosa via PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCO to summarize its traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of proposed active constituents, and potential for misuse and abuse. Research has demonstrated that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are said to have been caused by extracts of the plant. The main active alkaloid substances in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, present with a range of CNS stimulant and depressant effects mediated primarily through monoaminergic and opioid receptors. Recently, Palm Beach County, located in the southeastern corridor of Florida, has considered regulating kratom due to public safety concerns following the death of a young adult. At the local, state, and even federal levels, governments are now being confronted with the task of determining the safety and the possible regulation of kratom extracts. There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use. The growing concern of the abuse potential of kratom requires careful evaluation of its benefits and potential toxicities.
Statistics of Distinguishable Particles and Resolution of the Gibbs Paradox of the First Kind, Journal of Statistical Physics, 2010, 10.1007/s10955-010-0077-7
1 Comment → add new, Hjalmar Peters
In physics, there are two distinct paradoxes, which are both known as the “Gibbs paradox”. This article is concerned with only one of them: the false increase in entropy, which is calculated from the process of combining two gases of the same kind consisting of distinguishable particles. In the following, this paradox will be referred to as the Gibbs paradox of the first kind (GP1). (Two particles are said to be distinguishable if they are either non-identical, that is, if they have different properties, or if they are identical and there are microstates which change under transposition of the two particles.) The GP1 is demonstrated and subsequently analyzed. The analysis shows that, for (quantum or classical) systems of distinguishable particles, it is generally uncertain of which particles they consist. The neglect of this uncertainty is the root of the GP1. For the statistical description of a system of distinguishable particles, an underlying set of particles, containing all particles that in principle qualify for being part of the system, is assumed to be known. Of which elements of this underlying particle set the system is composed, differs from microstate to microstate. Thus, the system is described by an ensemble of possible particle compositions. The uncertainty about the particle composition contributes to the entropy of the system. Systems for which all possible particle compositions are equiprobable will be called harmonic. Classical systems of distinguishable identical particles are harmonic as a matter of principle; quantum or classical systems of non-identical particles are not necessarily harmonic, since for them the composition probabilities depend individually on the preparation of the system. Harmonic systems with the same underlying particle set are always correlated; hence, for harmonic systems, the entropy is no longer additive and loses its thermodynamic meaning. A quantity derived from entropy is introduced, the reduced entropy, which, for harmonic systems, replaces the entropy as thermodynamic potential. For identical classical particles, the equivalence (in particular with respect to the second law of thermodynamics) between distinguishability and indistinguishability is proved. The resolution of the GP1 is demonstrated applying the previously found results.