Social sustainability is known as the third leg of the "triple bottom line" of sustainability. It is the most difficult aspect of sustainability to understand in meaningful terms, to describe with specific applications, and to report on with success stories. Environmental stewardship and economic vitality, the other two legs of sustainability, are easier to define with more available and successful case study examples. Social sustainability, however, deals with our most critical daily "quality of life" issues. This paper will address the importance of social sustainability and its impact using an interdisciplinary approach that involves public, private, and academic sector approaches. First of all why is social sustainability so important today? Who is obligated or responsible to address our systemic social sustainability problems? Businesses in the private sector and NGO\'s in the public sector have all been focusing on social responsibility and corporate citizenship. Customers are demanding more of companies than just generating profits for the bottom line. Donors of foundations and NGO\'s want to know more about the impact of their dollar donation and the value that it creates. The roots of social sustainability deal with the premise that organizations have a responsibility to give back to society or the communities in which they operate, such as improving family and children welfare. Businesses and NGO\'s can take several approaches, such as ensuring their activities cause no harm to the environment or community. They can also pursue more proactive approaches, such as providing cash and in-kind contributions. Other organizations continue to raise the bar by adhering to corporate citizenship approaches. A citizenship role reflects more than just participation. It has at its core why as a community are we in this condition in the first place? This approach requires a holistic systems perspective with other community stakeholders to determine root causes. Now a new entity has arrived, social enterprise. Social enterprises are organizations that achieve their social or environmental mission by applying various business systems, processes, and best practices. The structure of these organizations can be either for profit or not for profit. A business can be certified as a B Corporation. There is also the L3 C organization, or Low-profit Limited Liability Company. The importance of social sustainability and its impact can now be seen in companies and organizations that pursue social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and social enterprise strategies. This paper will also provide examples of companies and organizations that have successfully implemented these strategies.
1. Objective Two thirds of the time span to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have passed and only very few Sub-Saharan African countries seem to be on track in reaching the targets set in 2000 by the UN General Assembly. This paper takes a quantitative data-based approach to analyze whether the different development targets that are set in the MDGs are compatible with each other. The literature on the mutual relations between development indicators is inconclusive. A simple correlation analysis does not seem to be sufficient. 2. Methodology This paper applies econometric complementarity analysis to a panel of 42 Sub-Saharan African countries. Complementarity analysis is a method to identify relations between variables that are mutually reinforcing. In this paper three dimensions of sustainable social development are identified: standard of living, education and health. Standard of living is represented by GDP, household consumption expenditures and primary energy consumption per capita, education by the literacy rate and the primary school completion rate and health by life expectancy at birth and the reciprocal value of the under-5 mortality rate (the number of children surviving until the age of 5). From a development objective function, the corresponding first order conditions are calculated and extended using a partial adjustment model. The resulting system of structural equations is estimated using an instrumental variable approach. The instruments include indicators concerning the economic and population structure, but also some development indicators from the set of MDG targets, such as access to improved water sources, employment, immunization against measles or diphtheria, HIV infections, and school enrolment rates. 3. Results There exist significant complementarities between some of the development objectives, whereas there seems to be no significant relation for others. The literacy rate is an example of the latter. The most significant relations were found between the under-5 survival rate and the primary school completion rate. Further, the under-5 survival rate is complementary to household consumption expenditures and primary energy consumption per head. The primary school completion rate is complementary to GDP per capita. Using these results it is possible to identify mutually reinforcing and conflicting policy targets. In short, health and living conditions as well as education and production (GDP) are mutually reinforcing.
The last decade of the XX century consolidated a new vision of development that involved not only the natural environment, but also socio-cultural aspects in a prominent position, argued that the quality of life of human beings became the condition for progress. This proposal is based on sustainable development considering the preservation for future generation\'s current use of natural resources. We cannot imagine the functioning of the developed societies without major hospitals, shopping malls, sports facilities, public transport stations, public institutions, schools, waste treatment plants etc.. The construction of such equipment involves huge amounts of money and produces a significant impact on the neighbourhood. These impacts on the economy, called externalities, can be positive or negative. Looking at the issue of community facilities from a macroeconomic point of view, a proper functioning of such equipment is essential for the development of local communities and general society. Amidst the global crisis, the best and most profitable use of such equipment enhances its positive impacts on society, which is supposed to be inclusive, and creates the structural conditions for social and economic growth. Many of those items can be better managed taking into consideration social sustainability by creating conditions for local and country development. A more inclusive and participatory societyis one of the key objectives of Europe 2020. The EU commission has identified three elements for the growth of the European state in the coming years: smart growth, sustainable growth (making our production more efficient in terms of resources, while boosting our competitiveness), inclusive growth (increased rate of participation in the labour market, acquiring skills and the fighting poverty). For the success of this strategy for the next decade, it is essential to have a social vision of the market. Improved management of such equipment can create opportunities for civic engagement of local citizens, for education and even for the creation of micro-business around the equipment. The greater involvement of citizens also allows to channel the energies of many social groups to make the social goals comprehensive, providing the appearance of a more participatory society. Companies today face many management problems of social sustainability in its various dimensions such as: demographic changes, social justice, education, health, among others. The proper management approach has to be an answer on how to deal with these problems. The objective of our work is the introductory analyses of the state of art of the management for social sustainability objectives of the sports facilities in Portugal. After this introductory analysis, we will propose the creation of a methodological guide for managers of these public facilities, in order to include the social sustainability aspects on their task and management objectives.
In a world of globalized production and consumption, both positive and negative environmental and social impacts are abundant in product supply chains. With the complexity of sourcing and distributing around the globe, a great deal of transparency is lost. Transparency, in economic theory, implies providing key information to help stakeholders make decisions, which in turn creates incentives for businesses to align their practices with the public\'s priorities. Consumers are more frequently questioning where, by whom, and under what conditions their products are being sourced and produced. One emerging technique is Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA). New Earth, a non-profit organization fostering innovative strategies and tools to help achieve sustainable development on a global level is providing a solution to acquire greater supply chain visibility. The Social Hotspots Database (SHDB) offers an overarching, global database that eases the data collection burden in S-LCA studies. The UNEP SETAC Guidelines for S-LCA of products recommended the development of such a resource (Benoît & Mazijn, 2009). It enables mainstream application of S-LCA by allowing stakeholders to prioritize unit processes for which site-specific data collection will be desirable. Data for two criteria are provided to inform prioritization: (1) labor intensity in worker hours per unit process and (2) risk for, or opportunity to affect, relevant social themes related to Human Rights, Labor Rights and Decent Work, Governance and Access to Community Services. The SHBD system utilizes an Input-Output global trade model, derived by New Earth from GTAP, a general economic equilibrium model facilitated by Purdue University, supplemented with data on wage rates from the ILO. The model calculates worker hours estimates by country and sector involved in the supply chain of products. The Social Hotspots Database incorporates more than 100 references to develop data tables for nearly twenty social themes, and continues to grow. The paper will present an overview of the SHDB development and features, as well as results from a pilot study conducted with the SHDB on strawberry yogurt. These studies, mandated by The Sustainability Consortium, focus on the potential social impacts existing in the supply chains of various product categories. The potential hotspots in the supply chain are proposed as places in the supply chain where further site-specific investigations are pertinent. Benoît C, Mazijn B (eds). 2009. Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products. UNEP/SETAC.