Several needs exist for gas/vapor sensing in space exploration: crew cabin air quality monitoring in space vehicles and the International Space Station (ISS), leak detection during launch, planetary atmosphere mapping and others. These gas/vapor sensors have numerous societal applications as well in environmental monitoring, industrial safety, medical diagnostics etc. We have developed 12-32 sensor array chips with single-walled carbon nanotubes and its variations involving functionalization, doping and other schemes and used them to construct an electronic nose. This is the one and only nanotechnology product that has been flown to outer space to date when it was used to monitor formaldehyde and other gases in ISS. We have also modified the workhorse of the gas sensing, the tin oxide CHEMFET sensor, by separating the sensing region (tin oxide) from the current conducting region (silicon nanowires) to increase reliability and lifetime through reduction of electrical stress and to reduce power consumption ideal for mobile applications.
This talk will also present lab-on-a-chip developments for astronaut health monitoring using carbon nanofiber electrodes. This 3x3 sensor array with multiplexing capability has societal applications in point-of-care diagnostics, and data for monitoring three key cardiac markers will be presented. Finally, radiation sensors using conventional silicon FINFET-like structures will be discussed. The novelty here involves the use of radiation-responsive gel as dielectric instead of the SiO2 found in conventional CMOS. This allows construction of a radiation nose consisting of an array of transistors each with a different gel responding to a specific radiation. Preliminary data for gamma ray detection will be presented. The author acknowledges contribution from Ami Hannon, Beomseok Kim, Yijiang Lu, Jing Li, Jessika Koehne, Ram Ghandiraman, Jinwoo Han, Taiuk Rim, Kihyun Kim, Chang Ki Baek and Jeong-soo Lee.
Meyya Meyyappan is Chief Scientist for Exploration Technology at NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, CA. Until June 2006, he served as the Director of the Center for Nanotechnology. He is a founding member of the Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology (IWGN) established by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The IWGN is responsible for putting together the National Nanotechnology Initiative.
Dr. Meyyappan has authored or co-authored over 330 articles in peer-reviewed journals and made over 250 Invited/Keynote/Plenary Talks in nanotechnology subjects across the world and over 200 seminars at universities. His research interests include carbon nanotubes, graphene, and various inorganic nanowires, their growth and characterization, and application development in chemical and biosensors, instrumentation, electronics and optoelectronics.
Dr. Meyyappan is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Electrochemical Society (ECS), American Vacuum Society (AVS), Materials Research Society (MRS), Institute of Physics (IOP), American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), American Institute of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), National Academy of Inventors, and the California Council of Science and Technology. He is currently the IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS) Distinguished Lecturer, and was the Distinguished Lecturer on Nanotechnology for both the IEEE Nanotechnology Council and ASME.
For his contributions and leadership in nanotechnology, he has received numerous awards including: a Presidential Meritorious Award; NASA's Outstanding Leadership Medal; Arthur Flemming Award given by the Arthur Flemming Foundation and the George Washington University; IEEE Judith Resnick Award; IEEE-USA Harry Diamond Award; AIChE Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum Award; Distinguished Engineering Achievement Award by the Engineers' Council; Pioneer Award in Nanotechnology by the IEEE-NTC; Sir Monty Finniston Award by the Institution of Engineering and Technology (UK); Outstanding Engineering Achievement Merit Award by the Engineers' Council; IEEE-USA Professional Achievement Award;AVS Nanotechnology Recognition Award; IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society Merit Award. For his sustained contributions to nanotechnology, he was inducted into the Silicon Valley Engineering Council Hall of Fame in 2009. He received an Honorary Doctorate in 2015 from the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa for his scientific contributions.
For his educational contributions, he has received: Outstanding Recognition Award from the NASA Office of Education; the Engineer of the Year Award (2004) by the San Francisco Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA); IEEE-EDS Education Award; IEEE-EAB (Educational Activities Board) Meritorious Achievement Award in Continuing Education.
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