In most autonomous vehicles the navigation subsystem is based on Inertial Navigation System (INS). Regardless of the INS grade, its navigation solution drifts in time. To avoid such a drift, the INS is fused with external sensor measurements. Recent publications show that the lever-arm, the relative position between the INS and aiding sensor, has influence on the navigation performance.
Most published research in this field is focused on INS/GNSS fusion with GNSS position updates only where performance and analytical observability analysis were made to examine the consequence of vehicle maneuvers on the estimation of the lever-arm states.
Yet, besides position updates, a variety of sensors measuring the vehicle velocity vector are available including GNSS and a Doppler velocity log. As in position measurements, when performing INS/velocity measurements fusion, the lever-arm must be taken account for. In this paper, an analytical observability and performance analysis for velocity measurements with lever-arm aided INS is derived for stationary conditions. The observable and unobservable subspaces are derived for two error-stets models: 1) a 12 error-state model (the position and lever-arm error-states are not included) yet the lever-arm is present in the measurement equation and 2) a 15 error-state model including the lever-arm error-states. The analytical closed form expressions are verified by numerical simulation.
The possibility of using mobile devices, such as smartphones, for locating a person indoor is becoming more attractive for many applications. Among them are health care and safety services, commercial and emergency applications. One of the approaches to find the smartphone position is known as Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR). PDR relies on the smartphone low-cost sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometer and magnetometers. An appropriate calibration phase to find the step length algorithm gains is required before PDR can be applied. These gains are very sensitive to the user and smartphone mode. In this research, we employ machine learning classifications algorithms in order to recognize and classify the pedestrian and smartphone modes. A methodology of training on a single user and testing on multiple users is proposed and experimentally evaluated. Results show successes in classifying the user and smart phone modes.
Every day in 2015, about 830 women died from pregnancy or childbirth-related complications around the world, with 99% of the deaths reported from developing countries (WHO, 2015). Maternal deaths result from complications of pregnancy, complications of childbirth and postpartum complications (Kassebaum et al., 2014). Despite improvement activities, the United Nations’ fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100 000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015 has not been met. Worldwide, the number of maternal deaths dropped only by 43% (WHO, 2015).
Uganda has a maternal mortality ratio of 343 per 100,000 live births with a 53% reduction between 1990 and 2013 (WHO, 2014). Uganda shows a slow progress in the reduction of maternal mortality, with only a 2.8% annual decline (WHO, 2015). The slow progress is explained by limited access to healthcare and shortage of medically trained health professionals that can provide maternal and child healthcare services (Nabudere et al., 2011). The public healthcare system includes national and regional hospitals and a tiered system of health centers (HCs), consisting of HC II at the parish level, HC III at the sub-county level and HC IV at the county level (MoH, 2012). The HCs use a referral system where patients are transferred to the next level from a health center that cannot provide adequate healthcare services.
While only 13% of Uganda’s population is urban (World Bank, 2010) the distribution of resources for healthcare, particularly specialized health professionals, is skewed toward urban areas. In fact, this leads to a very limited access to high quality healthcare in rural, remote, and hard-to-reach areas (MoH, 2012). In order to strengthen and extend the maternal healthcare workforce to rural areas, Uganda has employed a task shifting strategy (WHO, 2007). The strategy enables healthcare professionals such as doctors and specialized clinicians to move tasks to less trained and qualified health practitioners, such as nurses and community health workers organized in village health teams in rural areas (VHTs) (WHO/PEPFAR/ UNAIDS, 2008).
In the task shifting strategy, the VHTs are the first point of contact for pregnant women and face the task to predict pregnancy complications but, they cannot accurately predict pregnancy complications (Okuga et al., 2014) making it difficult to achieve the MDG5 goals. In order to achieve the goals, with the task shifting strategy, it requires an effective and efficient maternal healthcare system with adequate resources and capabilities. Information Systems research has led to the development of computer-based health information systems that support healthcare professionals, nurses and hospital administrative staff in daily activities, hence leading to increased quality and efficiency of patient care (Haux, 2006). Developing a health information system in developing countries is difficult due to the “organizational complexity, fragmentation, lack of coordinated organizational structures and unrealistic ambitions” (Asangansi and Braa, 2010). It has been noted that the adoption and use of eHealth interventions in developing countries is challenged with poor physical infrastructure such as poor transport network, unreliable power supply, low ICT illiteracy and poor data management structures (Wilson, 2000; Asangansi and Braa, 2010). For instance, electronic health (eHealth) interventions such as predictive models aimed at predicting pregnancy risks (Kleinrouweler et al. 2016) cannot be used by the VHTs and mid-level healthcare workers. Explanations for not using the models are that they are too complex for daily use in clinical settings because they require computer support (James, 2001; Payne et al., 2014).
Mobile Health (mHealth) extends the health information infrastructure to the villages and provides an opportunity to strengthen the healthcare systems in developing countries (Braa and Purkayastha, 2010). mHealth does not only support people in rural areas with limited access to healthcare but also supports people in urban areas and in developed countries to access care while on the move (Varshney, 2014). Given the potential benefits of mHealth, strengthening the work of VHTs and mid-level community health workers may require a mobile solution that is coordinated with the backbone systems to support maternal healthcare processes at different levels of the healthcare system.
Full utilization of mHealth in developing countries is challenged by technical issues such as costs of the mobile phones, installation, and mobile network infrastructure, mobile application usability issues and sociopolitical issues such as communication patterns and lack of power (Braa and Purkayastha , 2010; Braa and Sanner, 2011). There is still limited research on how sustainable mobile health information can be effectively deployed and scaled (Braa and Purkayastha, 2010). There is need to research on the challenges and needs for a sustainable and scalable mHealth solution in application domains such as clinical decision support, monitoring, evaluation and patient tracking, and electronic health records (Sanner et al., 2012) and on how such solutions can reduce financial costs to patients (Silva et al., 2015).
This research proposes a study on how to design a system that supports efficient predictions of pregnancy complications in low resource settings.
The main objective of the research is to investigate the role of IT in value co-creation for predictions of pregnancy complications in low resource settings. Specific research objectives include:
- To explain factors that enable co-creation of value to predict pregnancy complications in low resource settings
- To describe the relationships between IT and value co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications
- To recommend guidelines on how to design IT that enables value co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications in low resource settings
In order to design systems that support health practitioners in the rural areas to identify, prevent and manage pregnancy complications, we need to understand the human, technology and contextual factors in terms of structures and processes that may affect the use of the designed system. Therefore, the overall research question would be:
“How can IT support value co-creation in predicting of pregnancy complications in low resource settings?”
To answer this overall research question, we need to answer the following specific research questions:
- Which factors enable value co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications in low resource settings?
- In what ways can IT facilitate value co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications in low resource contexts?
- In what ways can IT be designed to enable value co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications in low resource contexts?
Contribution and significance
The practical contribution is to improve maternal healthcare in Uganda specifically through improved predictions of pregnancy complications in order for Uganda to meet the MDG5. Furthermore, the research supports the task shifting strategy by increasing access to quality care in low resource settings. The theoretical contribution is to identify how social capital theory and the service innovation framework enhance the use of IT to co-create value in the low-resource setting.
Value co-creation in the service-dominant (S-D) lens is defined as “the processes and activities that underlie resource integration and incorporate different actor roles in the service ecosystem” (Lusch and Nambisan, 2015).
The task shifting strategy presents challenges of inadequate access to quality maternal healthcare services in the rural communities. The quality of healthcare is not only achieved through service delivery but also through improved healthcare outcomes or the value obtained from the healthcare service delivery process (McColl-Kennedy et al., 2012). Improved healthcare outcomes require innovative ways of healthcare service provision. Michie et al. (2003) indicates that treatment plans and related health care activities do not only include interactions with health professionals but rather extends to the individual lifestyle and beliefs. Evidence has shown that involvement of the patients in their treatment creates value as they actively seek and share information with health professionals, friends, family, support groups and colleagues to redesign their treatment programs (McColl-Kennedy et al., 2012) and prevent diseases through proper diet and exercises (Groves et al., 2013).
Models and frameworks have been developed to improve healthcare outcomes in low-resource settings. Mburu (2014) developed a conceptual model for designing and deploying mHealth solutions for low-resource settings and tested it in maternal healthcare. The model was aimed at narrowing the gap between design of mHealth solutions and the use context. However, the model is inclined to processes between the healthcare provider and the patient and limits patients-patients or patients-family relationships. This limits research that focuses on other processes that support prevention and management of complications in rural settings with limited healthcare professionals. In this situation, the model is suitable for use in the traditional healthcare system that makes the healthcare provider at the center of healthcare and hence leads to limited quality of healthcare outcomes or reduced value.
Higa and Davidson (2017) developed a model that uses the S-D logic perspective for value co-creation in rural under-resourced settings. The model focuses of three actors including the patients, family or friends and healthcare providers who integrate resources to co-create value which is in this case, improving chronic disease health outcomes. The resources considered in the model include social capital in form of social support from family and friends, eHealth resources to facilitate service delivery and eHealth resources that enhance patient engagement in health behavioral changes. The model assumes that the resources are readily available and that the actors are willing and available to exchange services despite acknowledging that the different actors are situated in both formal and informal institutions that may limit their interactions. Higa and Davidson suggest further research on the contributions on different actors and how limitations faced by actors to access and integrate services.
The models and frameworks indicate the need to consider a social-technical approach when designing IT solutions that lead to improved health outcomes. The models also emphasize the need to consider the fit between the technical factors such as infrastructure, systems and the social factors such as the environment, individual characteristics and culture. Therefore, I will use a socio-technical approach to design a system that integrates social and technical factors.
To design IT innovations in healthcare, there is need to adopt the transdisciplinary approach in the research process. Pohl and Hadorn (2007) indicates that through transdisciplinary research, researchers understand the complexity of the problems as they analyze the life-world and scientific perceptions of the problem. This analysis can be achieved if different stakeholders in life-world participate in identifying and structuring the problem (Hadorn et al., 2008). This collaborative effort enables to bridge the gap between knowledge production in academia and knowledge required to solve a societal problem (ibid).
Community input into the research process requires an understanding of who to involve in the research process (Davis and Wagner, 2003). Community input can be used to either guide the research process or as a means of gathering empirical evidence for the research process (Gaber, 2016). Pike (1967) presents two perspectives of gathering community data which include emic and etic perspectives. He states that the emic perspective requires understanding the “lived experiences of the community members” while the etic perspective focuses on the “observations made by people outside the community”. In addition to the two perspectives, Gaber (2016) identified two other perspectives that include the emic-etic and etic-emic perspectives which are expressed as “insider-outsider vista” and “outsider-insider vista” respectively. He explains the emic-etic community perspective as being provided by advocacy groups who are members of the community and have worked with a community issue for some time hence, have an insider view. At the same time, such members work with other members in the advocacy groups who provide them with etic awareness view. The etic-emic community perspective is provided by community organization representatives with etic and emic contacts for different community issues (Gaber, 2016)
Qualitative research that uses an interpretive approach aims at understanding the emic perspective of the people through the meanings they attach to their experiences rather than focusing on facts (Hennink et al., 2011). Therefore, in the interpretive approach, particularly during data collection and interpretation, “the study participants reflect their subjective views of their social world while the researcher brings subjective influences to the research process” (ibid).
I will adopt the qualitative research approaches such as case study and ethnographic action research in my research process. This is because the approaches help to understand the interactions between people, technology and the organization. Such interactions inform theory development or solutions to the problem (Klein and Meyers, 1999). I used a case study research approach to conduct an exploratory and qualitative study in the Ugandan context to get an initial understanding of the maternal healthcare system. This helped me to identify some of the current problems facing the maternal healthcare system in Uganda for instance, the organizational, technical and human resource challenges. Data was collected through conducting interviews with the village health teams, midwives and healthcare professionals. The results from the study were analyzed using “the service innovation framework with the Service-Dominant (S-D) lens” (Lusch and Nambisan, 2015).
Given the fact that Sweden is among the countries with the lowest mortality rates, I plan to conduct a comparative study in Sweden to understand the best practices in maternal health care system and opportunities that can be transferred to the Ugandan context. A case study research design will be used to conduct this study. The data will be collected from midwives, midwife healthcare managers and IT managers in Gothenburg, Sweden. Midwife healthcare managers and IT managers will be interviewed and in addition, a survey will be sent out to the midwives. Further still, observations will be made at one of the healthcare clinics in Gothenburg to confirm the results from the interviews. The collected data will be analyzed using the S-D lens.
The Ethnographic action research enables the researcher to focus beyond individual ICT to include the entire structure of communication and information in people’s way of life (Tacchi et al., 2003). The approach provides IS researchers with insights into the human, social and cultural aspects of IS information development and application (Harvey and Myers, 1995). Ethnographic research will enable me to see “what people are doing as well as what they say they are doing” (Myers, 1999) through participant observation (Baskerville and Myers (2015). Through ethnography I will observe how VHTs interact with the pregnant women and the midwives during the pregnancy process.
Analyzing results from the research studies will be done with reference to the social capital theory (Lewis et al., 2013) and service innovation framework (Lusch and Nambisan, 2015). Analysis from the studies will enable me to design requirements for the use of IT to support value-co-creation in predicting pregnancy complications. I will evaluate the design guidelines using quality attributes of usability, reliability and organizational fit.
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The formulation of a unified theory of information still poses a fundamental scientific challenge [1,2]. Information may be present or being transmitted in two different ways, either in native form by physical structures or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters, images, etc. The latter form is equivalent (i.e., necessary and sufficient) to the existence of life; there is no life without symbolic information processing, and there is no symbolic information without life . In contrast, structural information may be attributed to any physical, unenlivened processes or structures and can usually be quantified in terms of entropy. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information out of structural information exhibits typical features of kinetic phase transitions of the 2nd kind and is referred to as a "ritualisation" transition , a term coined by Huxley  in behavioural biology for the development of signal-activity out of use-activity . The origin of life, the appearance of human language or the establishment of social categories such as private property or money can be understood as ritualisation transitions [2,3]. All these transitions have in common that as their results, arbitrary symbols are produced and recognised by information-processing devices, by "senders" and "receivers" in the sense of Shannon’s information theory, which had developed during an evolutionary process along with the actual set of symbols and of coding rules (such as “grammars” [6,7]), and replaced a related original non-symbolic causal chain.
A written text such as this abstract is typically a physical structure consisting of dark and light dots. The information carried by the text is in no way reducible to the physical properties of the given spatial distribution of dye; in this sense symbolic information is an emergent property. However, written text appeared as a result of the evolution of human language from more primitive signal systems used by animals, and those in turn from elementary physical and chemical processes. Here, ritualisation is understood as a universal qualitative transition from elementary structural to emergent symbolic information properties in the course of evolution processes. Another emergent property that often accompanies symbolic information is its value, such as selective values in biology or exchange values in economy; this aspect will elucidated in more detail in the presentation of Werner Ebeling at this conference.
Derived from thermodynamics  and the mathematical theories of bifurcations and catastrophes, the concept of kinetic phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems  appeared to be a useful tool also for the physical description of evolution processes which are thought of as potentially unlimited series of dynamic instabilities and subsequent steps of self-organisation [2,6]. In combination with empirical paradigms developed in population biology , ethology , evolution theory of culture and religion [11, 12], language theory [13,14] and economy , the striking qualitative similarity of the transition processes observed in those fields motivates their unified description from the perspective of self-organisation of information [2,3,16].
Results and Discussion
The very first ritualisation transition was the origin of life when chemical interaction of randomly assembled organic molecules became controlled by a primitive precursory genetic code, executed by catalysts forming a simple translation apparatus enclosed in a proto-cellular compartment [2,17]. Ritualisation was and is an extremely successful transition phenomenon in evolution that has been repeated many times after it once had happened for the first time, as briefly summarised in Table 1.
Table 1. Estimated time table of significant ritualisation transitions in evolution history (modified from ). Starting with the genetic code, each qualitative step of symbolic information processing gave rise to novel emergent properties, valuation and competition mechanisms.
Time BP / Evolution stage / Emergence of
4500 Myr / Random catalysis / Physico-chemical networks
3700 Myr / Genetic code / Biological systems
1200 Myr / Sexual reproduction / Sexual selective values
635 Myr / Morphogenesis / Multicellular organisms
518 Myr / Neuronal networks / Individual information gathering
2 Myr / Human spoken language / Human social systems
5500 yr / Written numbers / Book-keeping of personal property
2600 yr / Coined money / Market economy, exchange values
2600 yr / Greek natural science / Scientific information accumulation
Phase transitions of the 2nd kind own the characteristics  that the two phases involved (i) possess different symmetries, (ii) are indistinguishable at the transition threshold and (iii) cannot stably coexist in space. The new symmetry that emerges during the ritualization transition is coding invariance; if one set of given symbols, say, Latin letters, is replaced one-to-one by a completely different set of symbols, say, computer bits, the functioning of the entire system will remain unaffected if sender and received are modified accordingly. This is illustrated by the letter “A” in Figure 1. In contrast, the picture on the left of Figure 1 cannot be arbitrarily modified without losing its meaning, the ox. The new, neutrally stable, so-called Goldstone mode related to the coding symmetry is found in every symbolic information system; it permits slow drift and diversification of the set of symbols and at the same time preserves a trace of its own evolution history. The paradox discussed already by Herder in 1772  whether our spoken words are completely arbitrary creations of the human mind or are of traceable onomatopoetic origin may be explained this way.
Figure 1. Example for the ritualization transition in the evolution of the human written language. A physical object such as an ox is originally described by a symbolic picture (a “caricature”) which gradually develops into a mere symbol, losing any relation to the original object. The information represented by the final symbol(s) is an emergent property as its meaning cannot be derived from the physical dye distribution of letters such as “A”.
(please see the PDF version for the Figure).
Symbolic information systems appeared exclusively during the evolution of life, if technical devices are counted as “honorary living things” . Similarly exclusively, ritualisation may be the universal transition process by which symbolic information emerged from structural information. Accordingly, very different symbolic information system have universal properties in common which find their roots in the properties of the ritualisation transition, in particular, in the coding symmetry which fundamentally distinguishes symbolic from native information. In turn, the physical carriers of symbols possess native information; their physical structures are percussions of their own evolution history. The way how emergent symbolic information, the “soul”, became liberated from its original physical nature, the “body”, may be an evolutionary approach to a future unified theory of information.
The author is indebted to Wolfgang Hofkirchner for being invited to the ISIS Summit Vienna 2015.
References and Notes
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- Feistel, R.; Ebeling, W. Physics of Self-Organization and Evolution; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
- Feistel, R. Ritualisation und die Selbstorganisation der Information. In Selbstorganisation und Determination; Niedersen, U.; Pohlmann, L., Eds.; Duncker & Humblot: Berlin, Germany, 1990; Volume 1, pp. 83-98.
- Huxley, J. The ritualization of Behaviour in animals and man. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 1966, 251, 249-269.
- Tembrock, G. Grundlagen des Tierverhaltens; Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1977.
- Ebeling, W.; Feistel, R. Physik der Selbstorganisation und Evolution; Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1982.
- Jiménez-Montaño, M.A.; Feistel, R.; Diez-Martínez, O. On the information hidden in signals and macromolecules: I. Symbolic time-series analysis. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 2004, 8, 445-478
- Landau, L.D.; Lifshitz, E.M. Statistical Physics; Reed Educational and Professional Publishing: Oxford, UK, 1980.
- Haken, H. Synergetics: An Introduction; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1978.
- Fisher, R.A. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection; Clarendon Press; Oxford, UK, 1930.
- Koenig, O. Kultur und Verhaltensforschung; DTV, München, 1970.
- Wunn, I.; Urban, P.; Klein, C. Götter - Gene - Genesis: Die Biologie der Religionsentstehung; Springer Spektrum; Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
- Fitch, W.T. The evolution of language; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2010.
- Ifrah, G. Universalgeschichte der Zahlen; Campus-Verlag: Fankfurt/Main, Germany, 1991.
- Marx, K. Das Kapital, Erster Band; Dietz-Verlag: Berlin, Germany, 1951.
- Ebeling, W.; Feistel, R. Selforganization of Symbols and Information. In Chaos, Information Processing and Paradoxical Games: The Legacy of John S Nicolis; Nicolis, G.; Basios, V., Eds.; World Scientific Pub Co.: Singapore, 2015; pp. 141-184.
- Eigen, M. From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2013.
- Dawkins, R. The Blind Watchmaker; W.W. Norton & Co.: New York, 1996.
This short paper discusses aspects of the interplay between ideology, technology, power and economics in the field of Higher Education, in the context of the crisis in neoliberalism. It continues a discussion begun in 2014 at the annual teaching and learning conference of Goldsmiths University, London. The title of the paper conveys the tensions between the perceived concepts and cultural forms of the university and the powerful forces changing our society - the tensions between manners and economics that underlie much of Jane Austen's work. The ‘Belly of the Beast’ is a colloquialism describing incarceration in prison or, more generally, to be trapped in a bad situation with few positive options, it provides a suitable metaphor for the dilemmas facing academics in the neoliberal university described by Hall (1).
The current scale of development in open education is both massive and diverse, making analysis difficult, as the authors of a recent study conclude in 'Open education: A study in disruption' . Our approach is to begin to map some of the major landmarks and features in this space. This paper is part of a series of 'working sketches’, with the aim of identifying the forces and powers at work below the surface of higher educational establishments. We see this mapping activity as providing a useful foundation upon which to develop alternatives, inside and outside the university, that can overcome existing problems and limits to teaching and researching about the Internet from a critical and radical perspective.
We begin by describing the background to our work and identify some important forces and ideas affecting universities and then continue with two of our working sketches, concluding with a summary. The two sketches presented in this paper are:
1 - The Uses of Language
How language, ideas and the use of (new) media both form and limit discourse to produce a ‘monoculture’, in relation to technology and education in particular and, more generally, the open education agenda.
2 - Who Runs This Place?
An overview and infographic representation that identifies the power structures at work and begins to map the political and economic interests in this space.
The university sector has provided much of the 'intellectual soundtrack' for neoliberalism (as well as some principled opposition) and until relatively recently, the social capital of its inhabitants had been sufficient to avoid its worst effects. But, in the last 15 years or so the pressure from the neoliberal agenda has greatly intensified, through instrumentalist views of education, alignment with economic policy targets and calls for greater efficiency. The response to these pressures has been the 'massification' of higher of education, at first through simply building larger lecture theatres, more recently with technology. The problem at the heart of this situation is that the traditional university model of education is based on an economic and educational philosophy of scarcity, which has remained unchanged. The result is a university system that has been ‘bulked up’ like a bodybuilder on steroids that is hugely expensive to run, using poor educational methods to produce graduates who have fewer career opportunities, lower incomes and enormous debts they will never repay - educated into a form of financial and industrial servitude .
In the academic workplace, there is a growing culture of managerialism and intensification of labour to service much larger numbers of students with less staff. It is accompanied by a myopic short-term focus on budgets, producing intense stress in staff  and a strategic vacuum that is easily filled by techno-hype. This is part of a global trend where previously secure middle class workforces are forced into an increasingly precarious existence . As in other parts of the public sphere, this is accompanied by state-sponsored privatisation, as this extract from a UK government white paper makes clear:
“The government aims to ‘drive competition and innovation’, through a more market-based approach to higher education, allowing students to choose between a range of providers.” 
As the crisis deepens and spreads, austerity becomes a permanent economic and cultural control mechanism and in the process its political deliriums become less credible. In some ways this ideological breakdown can be seen most clearly in the university sector, until recently a central element of neoliberal economic development theory was the concept of the ‘knowledge economy’ and the key role of higher education was driving it forwards. This has shaped educational policy in the UK and around the world but its rationale is looking increasingly like a mystification as it is sharply contradicted by reality. The globalised economy is a low wage economy from which only a small minority can escape, as a UK educational research report concedes: “highly rewarded, creative and autonomous work is likely to be restricted over the coming two decades to ever smaller global elites” 
This broad observation provides the backdrop and context to our work in the turbulent space where technology, ideology, education, power and economics meet.
The Uses of Language
Our approach in this section has been inspired by Hoggart’s work on literacy and culture  and their relation to mass media, updated to include social media. In this connection, we examine how and why discourse in the area of education and technology appears to create a monoculture that is both ‘apolitical’ and aseptic. We identify a consistent element in this as being the language of fear, an essential function of the media under neoliberalism , especially the fear of being left behind others. This, together with intense commercial pressures, goes some way to explain the highly self-norming nature of debate within the educational technology community, acting as a powerful apparatus of control . A recent example of this narrative of fear is "An Avalanche is Coming", published by a think tank , designed to manage the policy debate in favourable directions for commercial interests. The reference language of university management now closely aligns to commercial entities; managers, customers, marketing, product, innovation, ROI, etc. The “product” being the graduate envisaged by and designed for society as a useful asset to the labour market - a market that is rapidly shrinking.
This narrative is supported by a recurring stereotype of young people being more digitally literate and capable than they are in reality (so-called ‘digital natives’), demanding more digital delivery of education, although research consistently refutes this distortion [11, 12, 13]. The role of ‘celebrity experts’ (often connected with universities) in constructing and projecting these narratives is an important one, the work of Mark Prensky  being notable. A recent example of the genre is Sebastian Thrun: “Higher education in 50 years will be provided by no more than 10 institutions worldwide” 
The UK government Minister of State for Universities and Science duly regurgitated this line afterwards at a public meeting with University leaders . We will examine the role of the celebrity expert and the use of traditional and social media in section two of this paper Who Runs This Place?
Who Runs This Place?
In this section, we take our lead from the work of Anthony Sampson  who recorded and charted the changes to the structures of the UK establishment over a 40-year period reflecting the impact of globalisation. An innovation by Sampson that we will reuse is to create an info-graphical representation that represents how the different players are connected to each other and the size of their relative influence.
Corporate interests have long seen education as a huge global prize for privatisation, this was signalled by the inclusion of the trade in higher education services in the WTO GATT agreements  that laid the foundations for the current marketisation of the sector. One of the vectors for corporate entry has been the promotion of the use of technologies, such as interoperability standards, to make education more 'efficient'. The IT corporation CISCO and others were heavily involved in promoting this concept (imported from the military and industry training sectors) during the ‘dot-com’ boom and accompanying e-learning bubble of the late 1990’s. As the CEO of CISCO stated: "The next big killer application for the Internet is going to be education. Education over the Internet is going to be so big it is going to make e-mail usage look like a rounding error" 
Things did not work out that time and many of the e-learning enterprises and initiatives failed shortly afterwards in the dot-com crash, including the UK government sponsored UK e-University that tried to implement the interoperable philosophy of ‘learning objects’ .
Now, those arguments are being reactivated, as Weller observes  there is a media campaign, again with celebrity experts promoting the concept of a crisis in public education using the catch phrase ‘education is broken’ and proposing that the fix is a technical one . As Klein  describes, the language of crisis as well as the actuality, is often used in political campaigns for the privatisation of publicly owned goods and services.
This is the context in which we discuss the relationships between universities, celebrity experts, IT corporations, think tanks, NGOs and charities, etc. For instance, the Mozilla foundation charity is involved in open education initiatives and is heavily funded by Google - who stand to gain from access to this new crop of analytic and demographic data.
In this short paper we have begun to map the turbulent space where technology, ideology, education, power and economics meet, concentrating on the uses of language and the forms and relations of the powers involved. We contend that in order to develop alternatives to the existing systems of education and overcome their problems and limits we should know from where we are starting.
- Hall, G. Pirate Radical Philosophy. Radical Philosophy, 173, May-June 2012.
- van Mourik Broekman, P.; Hall, G; Byfield, T.; Hides, S; Worthington, S. Open education: A study in disruption. Rowman & Littlefield International: London, 2014.
- Debt campaigners tear up student loans, Pippa Stephens, BBC News 22-10-14
- Death in academia and the mis-measurement of science, Arran Frood, EuroScience, 2015.
- Hardt, M.; Negri, A. Empire, Harvard University Press, 2001
- UK Government, The 2011 Higher Education White Paper, 2013
- Facer, K. Final Report of the Beyond Current Horizons Research Programme, Future Lab: London, 2009
- Hoggart, R. The Uses of Literacy, Penguin: London, 1966.
- Foucault, M. The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-1979, Editor Senellart, M, Palgrave Macmillan,: New York, 2008.
- Barber, M.; Donnelly, K.; Rizvi, S. An Avalanche is Coming, Institute for Public Policy Research: London, 2013.
- Information Behaviour of the Researcher of the Future, UCL: London 2008.
- Jones, C.; Shao, B. (2011). The net generation and digital natives: implications for higher education, Higher Education Academy: York, 2011.
- Kandiko, C.; Mawer, M. Student Expectations and Perceptions of Higher Education. QAA: Gloucester, 2013.
- Marc Prensky – Wikipedia entry http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marc_Prensky, 2015.
- The Stanford Education Experiment Could Change Higher Learning Forever. Sebastian Thrun Interview, Steven Leckart, Wired Magazine: 20/3/12
- Remarks made by David Willets at, ‘Open and online learning:, Universities UK (16/5/13) Woburn House Conference Centre, London, 2013
- Sampson, A. WhoRuns This Place? John Murray: London, 2004
- Knight, J. Trade in Higher Education Services: The Implications of GATS, The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education: London 2002.
- Next, It's E-ducation, Thomas Friedman, New York Times: (17 November), p. A29, New York, 1999.
- Hefce pulls the plug on UK e-university, Donald MacLeod, The Guardian: London march 2004.
- Weller, M. The Battle for Open: How openness won and why it doesn't feel like victory, Ubiquity Press: London, 2014.
- Morozov, E. To Save Everything, Click Here, Allen Lane, Penguin Books: London 2013.
- Klein, N. The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, Allen Lane, Penguin Books: London, 2008.
At least since the NSA disclosures of 2013th “Summer of Surveillance”, internet surveillance and informational privacy and security have received widespread public attention and become a political concern for many. Taking the disclosures as a starting point, I follow up on this development and inquire into the techno-politics of surveillance and counter-surveillance. Instead of focusing on regulation applied to technological practices from outside, I investigate the socio-political dimensions of the internet infrastructure itself and the politics of concrete technological surveillance and counter-surveillance practices. I show how data infrastructures are not only regulated through policy, but can function as techno-political means which bring about a specific socio-technical structure. My question is: How do surveillance and counter-surveillance technologies operate as a form of techno-politics within the internet infrastructure? The answer to this question can enhance our understanding of the impact on the political landscape, which ubiquitous information technologies and their steady diffusion into every realm of our lives have.
Technological infrastructures and networks are of central importance to my research, as contemporary ICTs and ICT surveillance technologies operate in and through networks rather than as single artifacts. The network, one of the 21st century’s most prominent entities, is both a potential threat and a potential point of control. Cumbers, Routledge and Nativel argue that “it is becoming increasingly difficult for ruling elites, usually located at the national scale, to play the gatekeeper role, through traditional territorialized hierarchies, with regard to information and communication flows across space” (Cumbers, Routledge & Nativel, 2008, p. 188). To exercise control then requires an “‘empire’ based upon a decentred and deterritorializing apparatus of rule that progressively incorporates the entire global realm” (Cumbers, Routledge & Nativel, 2008, p. 185). At the same time, networks have the tendency “to create hubs as these provide more stability and robustness. Hubs establish a kind of ‘hierarchy’ within networks and this in turn gives a certain advantage to key positions of players’” (Cumbers, Routledge & Nativel, 2008, p. 189). In my research I explore how surveillance technologies exploit the internet’s inherent hierarchies and operate through the global hubs that emerged within the infrastructure. Counter-surveillance technologies try to sabotage the centralized surveillance network this establishes. By using encryption technologies, they aim to make hubs dysfunctional for surveillance and to strengthen non-hierarchical network features. Consequently, the two antagonists are opposed in the way they use the network and are involved in a struggle over the network’s very structure and technological design.
I base my framework on pragmatist John Dewey’s approach to the relation between politics and infrastructures (Dewey, 1927) and extend it by analyzing the actual technological internet infrastructure. Susan Leigh Star and Geoffrey C. Bowker’s work on infrastructures and Alexander Galloway’s description of different network topologies to be found within the internet provide my basis for this analysis (Star & Bowker, 2006; Galloway, 2004). It builds the foundation for understanding surveillance and counter-surveillance technologies’ operation in and on the internet and its political dimensions. In Dewey’s political thought, technological infrastructures play a major role because he held politics to be concerned with governing the channels of human interactions, of which technological infrastructures are an essential part (Dewey, 1927, p. 30). Through these channels, people can purposefully organize within society, interact through networks of communication and collaboration, and engage in joint endeavors. Technologies become the means and ends of their purpose-directed activities and signify “the intelligent techniques by which the energies of nature and man [sic] are directed and used in satisfaction of human needs” (Hickman, 2001, p. 8). Politics exercise indirect control over people’s behavior through governing technological channels and regulating infrastructural systems. It is through these systems that interactions amongst society’s members propagate and actions translate into consequences through transmission over several instances.
Even though Dewey recognized their political importance, he did not analyze infrastructures in detail. According to Susan Leigh Star and Geoffrey C. Bowker, infrastructures are that “upon which something else rides, or works” (Star & Bowker, 2006, p. 230). As the technological structures that enable social phenomena, they are always underneath – transparent, invisible and embedded. Once in place, infrastructures only call for active investigation and attention when conditions of usability are altered and smooth use is prevented; otherwise they remain outside our awareness and active experiences. Because they organize flows of exchange within socio-technical complexes, infrastructures can be understood as the technological ordering of things. They consist of a plurality of technologies, agents and sub-networks and their actual configuration is contingent and dependent on implementation. Every configuration “represents only one of a number of possible contributions of tasks and properties between hardware, software and people” (Star & Bowker, 2006, p. 234). Network diagrams describe the structural features of different configurations and visualize their inherent distribution of power and control. To describe the control structures within the internet infrastructure, Alexander Galloway uses three different network types: the distributed, the decentralized and the centralized network (Galloway, 2004, pp. 11-12 & pp. 30 ff.). The centralized network is a hierarchical network in which one central host wields power over subordinate nodes. The decentralized network is then the conjunction of several centralized networks and consists of multiple hosts which rule over their sub-set of nodes. In both networks, information flows one-directionally from the host(s) to the nodes. A distributed network on the other hand does not have a hierarchical order, but every node is an equally autonomous agent and can communicate with any other node peer-to-peer. Now, when it comes to surveillance, the centralized network is easiest, since all flows must pass through the central hub. To surveil a decentralized network, multiple host need to be intercepted, because information does not accumulate in one place. In a distributed network, surveillance is most complicated. Here, in order to access every information flow within the network, all nodes (network participants) must be monitored.
Figure 1. The centralized, decentralized and distributed network diagram.
(see PDF version for the Figure).
Results and Discussion
Within the internet infrastructure’s different technological layers, we can find both distributed and (de)centralized network topologies. On the one hand, there is what I call the internet’s “physical layer”. This layer transmits actual data signals and consists of devices, cable networks, routers, servers, etc. When looking at its global constitution, we can see that this physical layer resembles a decentralized network. Across the globe, there are a number of major internet exchange points (IXPs). These are operated by internet providers like AT&T and most are located in the United States and Europe, for example in London, Frankfurt, Paris and New York (Figure 2). Nearly all internet traffic needs to pass one of them in order to get forwarded to its destination. Consequently, the IXPs build central internet hubs. Global (undersea) cable networks support this, because cables with the greatest bandwidth connect to these IXPs (TeleGeography, 2014). As it is cheapest to route through high bandwidth, data often does not take the geographically shortest path. Instead, it is linked through different high bandwidth cables across the globe and most likely across the United States. Therefore it is not surprising that NSA surveillance technologies exploit the decentralized structure of the physical layer (The Guardian, 2013). As most global hubs are are located on US soil or on the soil of US allies, the NSA can gain access to global information flows and retrieve data doubles secretly. One example for how this is done is Room 641A in AT&Ts office in San Francisco. According to former technician Mark Klein, the NSA had installed a splitter device in the office’s internet room, which is basically an IXP (Klein, 2007). From this splitter, it directs copies of all passing internet traffic to its secret room, where the data is analyzed with latest technology. From such interception points then, the NSA feeds the data into its own network and data center. This creates a centralized shadow-network on top of the actual internet infrastructure, in which the NSA is the central hub. From this position it can monitor information flows and oversee the whole network, but peripheral network participants remain unaware. Moreover, it is potentially able to manipulate data flows, as has been the case with the program Quantumtheory (Spiegel Online, 2013).
Figure 2. Global internet routes in 2012: © Copyright 2014 PriMetrica, Inc., retrieved from http://www.telegeography.com/telecom-resources/map-gallery/globalinternet-map-2012/index.html.
(see PDF version for the Figure).
But there is also a reason for why we often consider the internet a distributed network. Operating ‘on top’ of the physical layer, the “protocological layer” creates a network of equal nodes and bi-directional communication flows. In this layer, the rules are defined according to which data is wrapped and transmitted by the physical layer. The internet’s TCP/IP Protocol Suite logically assigns equal weight to all hubs and nodes (Cowley, 2012; Galloway, 2004). According to its predefined rules, IXPs have to route data but are not allowed to wield power over information flows. The protocols’ universal rules count equally for all network participants communicating through the infrastructure. To a potential surveiller, this distributed network is a thorn in the eye, because surveilling all flows here is very complex. For this reason, counter-surveillance technologies operate on and strengthen the protocological layer. Through encrypting data flows end-to-end, they make the decentralized physical structure dysfunctional for surveillance. Data still flows through the physical infrastructure and passes global hubs, but through encryption, communication is established peer-to-peer only. If someone intercepts the hubs, they cannot get any information usable for surveillance, because they cannot read the data. The Tor network does a similar thing (Tor Project, 2014); it hooks up to the regular internet infrastructure and allows user to access the internet. But by encrypting meta-data, surveillance of internet activities becomes impossible. In this way, encryption technologies have the power to strengthen the distributed features of the protocological layer and circumvent the decentralized physical one.
The results of my analysis show how the operation of surveillance and counter-surveillance technologies exploit different socio-political dimensions inherent to the internet infrastructure. Network diagrams helped me to describe these different dimensions and demonstrate how the two antagonists are engaged in a struggle over the network’s (dominant) structure and particular socio-technical organization. NSA surveillance technologies aim at establishing a centralized network in which the agency provides the central hub and oversees all information flows. Counter-surveillance technologies aim at establishing a distributed network where all nodes have equal rights and no one host has centralized control. This techno-political struggle is carried out within the infrastructure itself and through technological means. Within a Dewian account of politics, surveillance and counter-surveillance technologies then operate as a form of techno-politics, because they organize the channels of human interaction and strive to systematically regulate structures of interactions and communications through technologies.
However, Dewey still thought infrastructures to be extrinsic to political forms. In the case of governmental internet surveillance, we now see they become intrinsic, as infrastructures are employed for political purposes. In such techno-politics, political solutions are not negotiated through public discourse but through the application and operation of technologies. The people implied in the global network are affected by these techno-politics, because they structure their interactions in the network. But when political struggles are carried out on infrastructural levels that are transparent to users by their very definition, people remain unaware of these ongoing political developments. The problem this poses to democracy is further intensified by the network’s deterritorializing forces, which allow national agencies to access global hubs and wield power over a global public, while representing only a single nation state in whose interest they (supposedly) act. If technological solutions are provided to political problems, and if these solutions are applied on infrastructural levels that are transparent and invisible, then regular internet users and citizens are left unaware of political processes and cannot participate. Instead, it is technological elites who negotiate political decisions.
This paper is the result of my Master’s graduation project in Philosophy of Science, Technology and Society, offered at the University of Twente in the Netherlands. At this point I would like to offer my special thanks to my first supervisor, Dr. Michael Nagenborg, who was very enthusiastic about my project from the beginning on and provided me with the right starting points and a great introduction to Surveillance Studies. I would also like to express my great appreciation to my second supervisor, Prof. Peter-Paul Verbeek, who gave me feedback during the writing process and great support throughout the whole program. Finally, I wish to acknowledge all the people who make this outstanding Master’s program possible, my fellow students with whom I had such great discussions, and my family and friends for always supporting me.
References and Notes
Cumbers, A.; Routledge, P.; Nativel, C. The entangled geographies of global justice networks. Progress in Human Geography 2008, 32(2), 183-201.
Cowley, C. Communications and Networking, 2nd ed.; Springer-Verlag: London, United Kingdom, 2012.
Dewey, J. The Public and its Problems; Swallow Press/Ohio University Press: Athens, OH, United States, 1927.
Galloway, A. Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization; The MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, United States, 2004.
Hickman, L. Philosophical Tools for a Technological Culture; Indiana University Press: Bloomington, IN, United States, 2001.
Klein, M. Spying on the home front. Interview with H. Smith, Interviewer, 2007, May 15. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/homefront/interviews/klein.html
Spiegel Online. NSA-Dokumente: So übernimmt der Geheimdienst fremde Rechner; Published 2013, December 12. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/fotostrecke/nsa-dokumente-so-uebernimmt-dergeheimdienst-fremde-rechner-fotostrecke-105329-8.html
Star, S. L.; Bowker, G. C. How to infrastructure. Handbook of New Media 2006, 230-245.
TeleGeography. Submarine Cable Map 2014; 2014. Retrieved from http://www.telegeography.com/telecom-resources/map-gallery/submarinecable-map-2014/index.html
The Guardian. NSA Prism program slides. Published 2013, November 1. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/nov/01/prism-slidesnsa-document
Tor Project. Tor: Overview. Project website, 2014. Retrieved from https://www.torproject.org/about/overview.html.en
This paper examines the nature of ‘free labor’ (Terranova, 2004) and its compensation in today’s cognitive capitalism. (Boutang, 2011) Specifically, it tries to show how free labor involves into not only the generation of immaterial goods such as knowledge, information, culture, communication, relationship, and brand but also the production of various categories of material goods including motor cycles, medicines, musical instruments, and so on. In so doing, this paper explores how free labor of networked populations has been increasingly externalizing capital’s management function from production processes and thus reinforcing the ‘becoming rent of capital’. (Vercellone, 2008) In addition, it enquires into the exploitation of free labor in conjunction with the notion of the voluntariness of labor and the immaterial compensation (e.g., reputation or peer recognition) that could be considered as major discursive resources for the reproduction of cognitive capitalism. Furthermore, by examining various strategies coping with the gratuitous dynamics of immaterial products facilitated by contemporary digital networking environments, this article tries to seek for a fair way to compensate for the free cognitive and affective labor.
First, contents-vectoralists of music and film industries employ the legal device of ‘Digital Rights Management (DRM)’ as a way to secure their profits. And thus, they are strengthening rent-seeking economy and constraining various forms of the long-standing cultural practices among populations. Second, ‘Micropayment System’ is often regarded as a market-friendly solution to the gratuitous dynamics of digital labor by contents-vectoralists of journalism and publishing, many platform-vectoralists, and some libertarian consumer groups. Third, the concept of ‘Universal Basic Income’ could be an effective social policy for the proper compensation for free labor in the sense that it extends the logic of social and common nature of production to the sphere of distribution.
Background and Discussion
The private appropriation of free labor has long been pursued by contents-vectoralists with an ownership of intellectual property rights and DRM might be deemed to be the most recent technological device for that purpose. DRM is mainly led by contents-vectoralists such as Disney, Warner Brothers, EMI, Microsoft, and Amazon and supported by major manufacturers of electronics including Sony, Samsung, Apple, IBM, Panasonic, and so on. Although contents-vectoralists have been trying to limit networked populations’ free access to ideas and information by introducing DRM, this privatization of digital commons may result in the blocking of creativity and innovation that are vital to the reproduction of cognitive capitalism.
With regard to the notion of ‘Micropayment System’, some argue for charging all information, knowledge, and culture that is shared on the Internet free of charge and Micropayment System often considered as a proper way to compensate monetarily those who contributed to value creation in digital networks. In spite of the past failures of start-ups such as BitPass, FirstVirtual, Cybercoin, Millicent, Digicash, Internet Dollar, and Pay2See, some newspapers actively seek for a building of payment system to each news articles so as to relieve the company’s financial burden. New York Times and Financial Times are currently running ‘Metered Paywalls’ model and many more newspaper capitals are expected to join the track. And ‘Google Wallet’ seems to providing a new momentum for the spread of Micropayment System. Meanwhile, it constitutes another reason for the idea of Micropayment System that many criticize platform-vectoralists such as Google and Facebook for their monopolization of the profits coming from the use of huge user-generated data on the Internet. Several social network services (e.g. Teckler, Pheed, Datacoup) actually run the business model which get back some of their profit to their users as a form of payment for using their personal data. Even some consumer activists refuse the highly common and idealized concept of ‘freedom of information’ and ‘free information’ since it enables, to a great extent, platform-vectoralists with a huge networking power to use and capture users’ value-creating activities free of charge. So, in order to realize information economy in which a new middle-class can emerge, we need, some argue, to renounce the familiar concept of ‘free information’ and to employ a universal Micropayment System. (Lanier, 2013), However, Micropayment System, on the one hand, must disentangle a very complicate matter of ownership of immaterial goods and, on the other hand, inevitably require the establishment of an highly intensive digital surveillance system. Thus, this market-oriented solution for the compensation could not serve as a viable alternative.
Basic Income, as a way for a social and common compensation, may be able to deal with failures of rent-seeking economy developing in the sphere of culture and information beyond the realm of natural resources. It may also play a significant role in the realization and spread of social value of a common cultural inheritance. The concept of Basic Income is often justified in two different ways. First, all economic wealth and value is generated by social cooperation. That is, the creation of wealth should be considered not in terms of the product of individuals’ laboring power but in terms of social bond and cooperation among individuals. Therefore, every individual is deemed to retain the right to acquire wealth from these social and common resources. Second, key elements of production (e.g. tools, technology, and knowledge) belong to a communal cultural tradition and human heritage. So, we are all just cultural inheritors of human community and have to right to receive dividends. These two justifications of Basic Income seem to have a great relevance to today’s cognitive capitalism. Its accumulation regime greatly relies upon the production of immaterial goods such as information, knowledge, and culture and its mode of production increasingly focuses on cooperation among networked populations. Furthermore, given the increasing flexibilization of employment relationships and differentiation between internal and external labor markets, universal Basic Income may play a crucial role in relieving the instability of cognitive capitalism.
References and Notes
Andrejevic, Mark. 2009. “Exploring YouTube: Contradiction of User-Generated Labor.” Pp. 406-423 in The YouTube Reader (eds.) Pelle Snickars and Patrick Vonderaw. Lithuania: Logotipas.
Andrejevic, Mark. 2011. "Surveillance and Allienation in the Online Economy" Surveillance & Society 8(3): 278-287.
Arvidsson, Adam and Elanor Colleoni. 2012. “Value in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet.“ The Information Society 28: 135-150.
Böhm, Steffen and Chris Land. 2012. "The New 'Hidden Abode'" Reflecting on Value and Labour in the New Economy." The Sociological Review 60(2): 217-240.
Boutang, Yann Moulier. 2011. Cognitive Capitalism. MA: Polity Press.
Bucher, Taina. 2012. "Want to be on the Top? Algorithmic Power and the Threat of Invisibility on Facebook." New Media & Society. 14(7): 1164-1180.
Geidner, Nick and Denae D’Arcy. 2013. “The Effects of Micropayments on Online News Story Selection and Engagement.“ New Media & Society.
Gillespie, Tarleton. 2006. “Designed to 'Effectively Frustrate': Copyright, Technology and the Agency of Users.“ New Media & Society 8(4): 651669.
Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. 1994. Labor of Dionysus: A Critique of the State Form. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Hearn, Alison. 2010. "Structuring Feeling: Web 2.0, Online Ranking and Rating, and the Digital 'Reputation' Economy," Ephemera 10(3/4): 421-438.
Hesmondhalgh, David. 2010. “User-Generated Content, Free Labour and the Cultural Industries.“ Ephemera 10(4/4): 267-284.
Jeppesen, Lars Bo, Lars Frederiksen. 2006. “Why Do Users Contribute to Firm-Hosted User Communities?: The Case of Computer-Controlled Music Instruments.“ Organization Science 17(1): 45-63.
Lanier Jaron. 2013. Who Owns the Future? NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks.
Lee, Edwards, Bethany Klein, David Lee, Giles Moss and Fiona Philip. 2012. “Framing the Consumer: Copyright Regulation and the Public.“ Convergence 19(1): 9-24.
Lucarelli, Stefano and Fumagalli, Andrea. 2008. “Basic Income and Productivity in Cognitive Capitalism.“ Review of Social Economy LXVI(1): 71-92.
Terranova, 2004. “Free Labor." Pp. 33-57 in Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. (edited by Trebor Scholz) NY: Routledge.
Swahney, Mohanbir, Gianmario Verona, and Emanuela Prandelli. 2005. “Collaborating to Create: the Internet As a Platform for Customer Engagement in Product Innovation.“ Journal of Interactive Marketing 19(4): 5-17.
Vercellone Carlo. 2008. “The New Articulation of Wages, Rent and Profit in Cognitive Capitalism.” https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00265584
Zeller Christian. 2008. “From the Gene to the Globe: Extracting Rents Based on Intellectual Property Monopolies.“ Review of International Political Economy 15(1): 86-115.
Zwick, Detlev, Samuel Bonsu and Aron Darmody. 2008. "Putting Consumers to Work: 'Co-creation' and New Marketing Govern-mentality." Journal of Consumer Culture 8(2): 163-196.1.
Resilience in Psychotherapy
„Resilience is accepting your new reality, even if it’s less good than the one you had before. You can fight it, you can do nothing but scream about what you’ve lost, or you can accept that and try to put together something that’s good.” Elizabeth Edwards, a name that is tied to the concept of resilience. Factors connected to a person’s resilience are: reality orientation, confidence in one’s own abilities, communication and the ability to regulate one’s own impulses and feelings.
As a psychoanalyst, I am struck how similar these factors are to the process, developments and goals of psychoanalytic treatment. Let us take a look at the goals of psychoanalytic treatment:
- Reality orientation: one of Freud’s main quotes is “Where Id is, there shall be Ego”. A translation of this quote for the lay would mean: where life is filled with fantasies and illusions – this area should be replaced by an orientation to reality. This is often a painful process since dreams are a substitute for painful reality.
- Confidence in one’s own abilities: ambiguities, which are central to the erosion of confidence are a central issue in psychoanalysis. The defeating forces at work here are constantly an object of our work.
- Communication: there is nothing that is not communication in psychoanalysis. The patients entrance into a room is already a statement! In psychoanalysis we constantly try to understand the scene which the patient is trying to show us or themselves.
- Regulation of feelings: Becoming the subject and not the object is one of the goals of psychoanalysis.
The phoenix is a symbol for resilience. A bird rising from the ashes, reborn to rise to a new life. A trauma depicted by a fire had destroyed one life which, now comes back to life. This motif lives with us as form of our mythology. This myth lives with us in a broad width of meanings. The range of the meanings of the phoenix in our lives goes from the pathological to the benign. Pathological would be the fantasy or general assumption of rebirth or resurrection with 72 virgins and at the more healthy end of the spectrum would be a wish or fantasy of just being able to sit in a wheel-chair and have a normal conversation with beloved ones again.
Belonging to the features of resilience is the desire to resist the pull to the end of all and the resulting decay. In this thought we can recognize Freud’s dichotomy of the life and death drives which are with us until our own death.
Resilience may be the fight against Thanatos, Freud’s deathdrive. As individuals and members of a species in development we all face death and thus decompose. Libido – the drive of love is the unifying force in us connecting to parts to ever larger wholes.
Psychotherapy, especially psychoanalysis, which incorporates the life and death drive, is a method to examine these dynamics in us. It is also a method to enhance and develop the main factors contributing to the development of resilience.
The purpose of the following case presentation is to illustrate consequences of the choice: Either Thanatos or Libido!
The following case was considered in more ways than one as ‘hopeless’. Regular psychotherapy was questionable and to think of this patient as a psychoanalytic patient was beyond imagination. Even though the conditions for beginning a therapy were difficult, if they were there at all, the therapy turned out to be a success.
The patient Univ. Prof. Dipl. Ing. DDr. S., who is now 81 years of age was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage at the age of 77 to a Viennese geriatric hospital in which I work. His prognosis was negative if not hopeless in all aspects – he was somnolent, could neither speak, swallow, control his bowels, connected to a PEG-tube as well as a suprapubic cathetus. The most his daughter and companion B., a Viennese psychoanalyst, expected was to sit with S in a modern wheelchair under a tree, holding his hand and to have simple conversations. However, it all changed and took a different development.
After 1 ½ years in our care hospital, after many different therapies in which I was involved S was released to a rehab and then released home, still having an organic brain syndrome, however having complete control over his speech and language functions, his thinking processes were still slow, without a PEG-tube, continent, being able to walk a few steps.
Six months after his release from the rehab, in the mean time I had no contact with S. I received unexpectedly a call from B., asking if I could continue the talks I had with him. She stated that the conversations I had with him had helped a lot, mostly he had become much more sociable and loving...
The call delighted me, I accepted the offer, and felt honoured and was curious to hear from S. He called and the therapy could start.
S.’s initial objectives were to help him regain his memory of the time before his massive trauma which had torn him out of a very successful life. In the course of the therapy this initial objective continued to widen to an understanding of his self, his relations and the dynamics of his conflicts. The symbolic equation of the first phase after his subarachnoid hemorrhage with a regression in the autistic-contiguous position, following the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive position as well as the regaining of control over his oral, anal and genital functions made it possible to connect his life history with his here and now and to think about options of his future. The focus of the topics included the relationship to his parents; the cold hearted mother; the loving, creative weak father; his unresolved oedipal conflict; his relationship to his children; his relationships to women and his sexual life. It was especially exciting to also follow the neuroscientific aspects. Early defense mechanisms such as denial of reality, omnipotence and idealisation, which were also caused by his brain damage, changed within the course of therapy to more mature ones as intellectualisation. Freud’s statement “Where Id was, Ego should be” (Freud,  2000 , S. 516) applies to the process of S.’s therapy Ego-functions were strengthen so that he could deal with reality, the results of his trauma and ageing much better.
For the past 2 ½ years S. was treated by myself in a psychoanalytic treatment twice weekly in his Viennese apartment. Especially challenging in the work with S. was the intellectual challenge: S. is a scientist and philosopher, his resistances, his defences, his transferences and my countertransferences, as well as the abstinence, which is defined by an inner attitude take on new contures. This case is a prime example of how psychotherapy is a process resembling resilience: overcoming extreme difficulties and regaining a new and hopefully better life.
References and Notes
- Auchter, T., & Strauss, L. V. (2003). Kleines Wörterbuch der Psychoanalyse. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
- Ermann, M. (2007). Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
- Freud, S. ( 2000). Studienausgabe Schriften zur Behandlungstechnik (Vol. Ergänzungsband). Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.
- Freud, S. ( 2000). Zur Einführung des Narzißmus. In Studienausgabe Psychologie des Unbewußten (pp. 37-68). Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.
- Freud, S. ( 2000 ). XXXI. Vorlesung: Die Zerlegung der psychischen Persönlichkeit. In Studienausgabe Vorlesung zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse Und Neue Folge (Vol. 1, pp. 496-516). Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.
- Kaplan-Solms, K., & Solms, M. (2007). Stuttgart: Klett Cotta.
- Loch, W. (1989). Die Krankheitslehre der Psychoanalyse. Stuttgart: S. Hirzel.
- Möller, H.-J., Laux, G., & Deister, A. (2009). Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie. Stuttgart: Thieme.
- Willi, J. (1975). Die Zweierbeziehung. Reinbek: Rowohlt