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Statistics of Distinguishable Particles and Resolution of the Gibbs Paradox of the First Kind, Journal of Statistical Physics, 2010, 10.1007/s10955-010-0077-7
3 Comments → add new, Hjalmar Peters
In physics, there are two distinct paradoxes, which are both known as the “Gibbs paradox”. This article is concerned with only one of them: the false increase in entropy, which is calculated from the process of combining two gases of the same kind consisting of distinguishable particles. In the following, this paradox will be referred to as the Gibbs paradox of the first kind (GP1). (Two particles are said to be distinguishable if they are either non-identical, that is, if they have different properties, or if they are identical and there are microstates which change under transposition of the two particles.) The GP1 is demonstrated and subsequently analyzed. The analysis shows that, for (quantum or classical) systems of distinguishable particles, it is generally uncertain of which particles they consist. The neglect of this uncertainty is the root of the GP1. For the statistical description of a system of distinguishable particles, an underlying set of particles, containing all particles that in principle qualify for being part of the system, is assumed to be known. Of which elements of this underlying particle set the system is composed, differs from microstate to microstate. Thus, the system is described by an ensemble of possible particle compositions. The uncertainty about the particle composition contributes to the entropy of the system. Systems for which all possible particle compositions are equiprobable will be called harmonic. Classical systems of distinguishable identical particles are harmonic as a matter of principle; quantum or classical systems of non-identical particles are not necessarily harmonic, since for them the composition probabilities depend individually on the preparation of the system. Harmonic systems with the same underlying particle set are always correlated; hence, for harmonic systems, the entropy is no longer additive and loses its thermodynamic meaning. A quantity derived from entropy is introduced, the reduced entropy, which, for harmonic systems, replaces the entropy as thermodynamic potential. For identical classical particles, the equivalence (in particular with respect to the second law of thermodynamics) between distinguishability and indistinguishability is proved. The resolution of the GP1 is demonstrated applying the previously found results.
Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives, Energies, 2014, 10.3390/en7063512
33 Comments → add new, Mohammad Karbaschian, Dirk Söffker, Mohammad Ali Karbaschian
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.
Association Study of TGFBR2 and miR-518 Gene Polymorphisms With Age at Natural Menopause, Premature Ovarian Failure, and Early Menopause Among Chinese Han Women, Medicine, 2014, 10.1097/md.0000000000000093
9 Comments → add new, Xiangyu Ma, Yanchun Chen, Xianghai Zhao, Jinfeng Chen, Chong Shen, Song Yang
Age at natural menopause (ANM), a highly heritable phenotype, has been identified to be closely associated with major hormone-related diseases, including breast cancer and gynecological cancers. We previously identified an important role for the transforming growth factor, β receptor II (TGFBR2) gene polymorphisms in breast cancer susceptibility among Asian women. Considering the important role of ANM in breast carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that TGFBR2 signals were involved in the formation of natural menopause.In a population-based study of 1844 Chinese women, we evaluated the effect of the genetic polymorphisms of TGFBR2 and miR-518 to determine if they are associated with ANM, premature ovarian failure (POF), and early menopause (EM) risk.No significant differences in the distribution of body mass index, education levels, smoking, drinking, and hypertension were detected between POF and EM cases and controls except for POF cases that were older (P = 0.015) than controls and more likely to have dyslipidemia (P = 0.002). The results showed that miR-518 rs7256241 was significantly associated with ANM. The carriers of minor allele G of rs7256241 have significantly higher ANM than those of the major allele homozygotes TT (β = 0.385, P = 0.035). TGFBR2 rs3773661 was significantly associated with POF, with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of 0.66 (0.47-0.94) associated with per minor allele C (P = 0.023). The quartiles of genetic risk score were significantly associated with POF (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.58; Ptrend = 0.034). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings and no significant interactions were detected.This study provides evidence to implicate TGFBR2 and miR-518 gene polymorphisms as novel susceptibility factors for ANM, POF, and EM in Asians. Further research on these genetic regions will enhance our understanding of the genetic basis of natural menopause.
Enhanced Detection of Human Plasma Proteins on Nanostructured Silver Surfaces, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, 2013, 10.5772/56940
12 Comments → add new, Zuzana Orsagova, Andrej Orinak, Renata Orinakova, Lenka Skantarova, Jozef Radonak, Andrej Oriňák Zuzana Orságová Králová
In chemical and medical research, recent methods combine the tools of nanotechnology, chemistry and biology in a way that introduces the most modern processes to current medical practice. The main blood plasma proteins – albumin and globulin and their amino acid sequences, are carriers of important information about human health. In this paper we employed silver nanostructured surfaces prepared by electrodeposition. Consequently, electrochemical deposition is introduced as a convenient, fast and cost-effective method for the preparation of metallic nanostructures with required morphology. Silver nanostructured surfaces were applied as the templates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) of albumin and globulin in the role of model analytes. We also studied the effect of a working electrode polishing process on electrodeposition and identification of proteins. The aqueous solutions of albumin and globulin were applied onto these Ag nanostructured substrates separately. An analytical signal enhancement factor of 3.6×102 was achieved for a band with a Raman shift of 2104cm-1 for globulin deposited onto silver nanostructured film on unpolished stainless steel substrate. The detection limit was 400μg/mL. Plasma or serum could present a preferable material for noninvasive cancer disease diagnosis using the SERS method.
Pro-generics policies and the backlog in medicines registration in South Africa: implications for access to essential and affordable medicines, Generics and Biosimilars Initiative Journal, 2015, 10.5639/gabij.2015.0402.014
10 Comments → add new, Henry MJ Leng, David Sanders, Allyson M Pollock
3D Radiation Therapy Boost Improves the Outcome of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy Treated RPA II Patients with One or Two Brain Metastases, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2014, 10.3390/ijms15057554
15 Comments → add new, Delphine Antoni, Jean-Baptiste Clavier, Marius Pop, Catherine Schumacher, François Lefebvre, Georges Noël
Purpose: to evaluate the role of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and radiation boost (RB) for 208 patients recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) II with 1 or 2 brain metastases (BM) at a single institution. Methods and Materials: the dose of WBRT was 30 Gy (10 fractions of 3 Gy). One hundred thirty-two patients (63.5%) benefited from RB of 9 Gy in 3 fractions of 3 Gy at the metastatic site. Patients had 1 or 2 BM in 122 (58.7%) and 86 cases (41.3%), respectively. Results: patients with one or two metastases had similar survival (4.6 and 5.1 months, respectively) (p = 0.4). Median overall survival (OS) for patients treated with WBRT and RB, and with WBRT alone was 5.9 and 3.7 months, respectively (p = 0.03). The 6-, 12- and 24-month OS rates after WBRT and RB were 48.5%, 25% and 10.6%, respectively, while WBRT alone resulted in OS rates of 34%, 22.4% and 3.2%, respectively (p = 0.03). After WBRT and RB, the 6-, 12- and 24-month local control rates were 92%, 82% and 67%, respectively, while they were 81.2%, 75% and 37.5%, respectively, after WBRT alone (p = 0.03). The 6-, 12- and 24-month brain control rates after WBRT and RB were 88.7%, 75.8% and 62%, respectively, and after WBRT alone they were 78.5%, 59% and 37.7%, respectively (p = 0.03). Conclusion: additional boost delivered with 3D conformal radiotherapy improves local and brain control rates significantly as well as overall survival for RPA II patients with 1 or 2 unresectable BM.
The Clean Privacy Ecosystem of the Future Internet, Future Internet, 2013, 10.3390/fi5010034
5 Comments → add new, Lothar Fritsch
This article speculates on the future of privacy and electronic identities on the Internet. Based on a short review of security models and the development of privacy-enhancing technology, privacy and electronic identities will be discussed as parts of a larger context—an ecosystem of personal information and electronic identities. The article argues for an ecosystem view of personal information and electronic identities, as both personal information and identity information are basic required input for many applications. Therefore, for both application owners and users, a functioning ecosystem of personal information and electronic identification is important. For the future of the Internet, high-quality information and controlled circulation of such information is therefore argued as decisive for the value of future Internet applications.
Identification of new high mobility group A1 associated proteins, PROTEOMICS, 2007, 10.1002/pmic.200700148
26 Comments → add new, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni, Francesco Esposito, Stéphane Giraud, Willy Vincent Bienvenut, Jean Jacques Diaz, Alfredo Fusco
High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins (HMGA1a, HMGA1b, HMGA1c and HMGA2) are nonhistone chromosomal proteins that do not have transcriptional activity per se, but they orchestrate the assembly of multiprotein complexes involved in gene transcription, replication and chromatin structure through a complex network of protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions. To better understand their mechanisms of action, we have used a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 1‐D gel SDS‐PAGE and MS to identify new potential molecular interactors. We have found 11 proteins that associate with HMGA1. These proteins belong to three different classes: mRNA processing proteins, RNA helicases and protein chaperones. Some interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and pull‐down experiments in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. These experimental data suggest that HMGA1 proteins can associate with proteins that are strictly involved in chromatin structure and in several important mRNA processing steps, supporting the idea that HMGA1 proteins can also participate in these events.
The Gibbs Paradox Revisited, Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation, 2011, 10.1007/978-94-007-1180-8_25
2 Comments → add new, Dennis Dieks, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao J. Gonzalez, Stephan Hartmann, Thomas Uebel, Marcel Weber
The Gibbs paradox has frequently been interpreted as a sign that particles of the same kind are fundamentally indistinguishable; and that quantum mechanics, with its identical fermions and bosons, is indispensable for making sense of this. In this article we shall argue, on the contrary, that analysis of the paradox supports the idea that classical particles are always distinguishable. Perhaps surprisingly, this analysis extends to quantum mechanics: even according to quantum mechanics there can be distinguishable particles of the same kind. Our most important general conclusion will accordingly be that the universally accepted notion that quantum particles of the same kind are necessarily indistinguishable rests on a confusion about how particles are represented in quantum theory.
The Problematic Forms of Nominalization in English: Gerund, Verbal Noun, and Deverbal Noun, English Linguistics Research, 2014, 10.5430/elr.v4n1p30
4 Comments → add new, Inam Ismael Taher