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The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse, International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2015, 10.1007/s00414-015-1279-y
1 Comment → add new, Marcus L. Warner, Nellie C. Kaufman, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications, preparations of kratom are touted by many as a safe and legal psychoactive product that improves mood, relieves pain, and may provide benefits in opiate addiction. Available literature was reviewed for M. speciosa via PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and EBSCO to summarize its traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacology and toxicology of proposed active constituents, and potential for misuse and abuse. Research has demonstrated that both stimulant and sedative dose-dependent effects do exist, but a growing concern for the drug's effects and safety of use has resulted in national and international attention primarily due to an increase in hospital visits and deaths in several countries that are said to have been caused by extracts of the plant. The main active alkaloid substances in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, present with a range of CNS stimulant and depressant effects mediated primarily through monoaminergic and opioid receptors. Recently, Palm Beach County, located in the southeastern corridor of Florida, has considered regulating kratom due to public safety concerns following the death of a young adult. At the local, state, and even federal levels, governments are now being confronted with the task of determining the safety and the possible regulation of kratom extracts. There are currently no standard analytical screening techniques for mitragynine and its metabolites following ingestion limiting its detection to more sophisticated techniques like liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine kratom use. The growing concern of the abuse potential of kratom requires careful evaluation of its benefits and potential toxicities.
Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives, Energies, 2014, 10.3390/en7063512
1 Comment → add new, Mohammad Karbaschian, Dirk Söffker, Mohammad Ali Karbaschian
The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.
UVA, UVB Light Doses and Harvesting Time Differentially Tailor Glucosinolate and Phenolic Profiles in Broccoli Sprouts, Molecules, 2017, 10.3390/molecules22071065
1 Comment → add new, Melissa Moreira-Rodríguez, Vimal Nair, Jorge Benavides, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez
Broccoli sprouts contain health-promoting glucosinolate and phenolic compounds that can be enhanced by applying ultraviolet light (UV). Here, the effect of UVA or UVB radiation on glucosinolate and phenolic profiles was assessed in broccoli sprouts. Sprouts were exposed for 120 min to low intensity and high intensity UVA (UVAL, UVAH) or UVB (UVBL, UVBH) with UV intensity values of 3.16, 4.05, 2.28 and 3.34 W/m2, respectively. Harvest occurred 2 or 24 h post-treatment; and methanol/water or ethanol/water (70%, v/v) extracts were prepared. Seven glucosinolates and 22 phenolics were identified. Ethanol extracts showed higher levels of certain glucosinolates such as glucoraphanin, whereas methanol extracts showed slight higher levels of phenolics. The highest glucosinolate accumulation occurred 24 h after UVBH treatment, increasing 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin, glucobrassicin and glucoraphanin by ~170, 78 and 73%, respectively. Furthermore, UVAL radiation and harvest 2 h afterwards accumulated gallic acid hexoside I (~14%), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (~42%), gallic acid derivative (~48%) and 1-sinapoyl-2,2-diferulolyl-gentiobiose (~61%). Increases in sinapoyl malate (~12%), gallotannic acid (~48%) and 5-sinapoyl-quinic acid (~121%) were observed with UVBH Results indicate that UV-irradiated broccoli sprouts could be exploited as a functional food for fresh consumption or as a source of bioactive phytochemicals with potential industrial applications. View Full-Text
Identification of new high mobility group A1 associated proteins, PROTEOMICS, 2007, 10.1002/pmic.200700148
3 Comments → add new, Giovanna Maria Pierantoni, Francesco Esposito, Stéphane Giraud, Willy Vincent Bienvenut, Jean Jacques Diaz, Alfredo Fusco
High mobility group A (HMGA) proteins (HMGA1a, HMGA1b, HMGA1c and HMGA2) are nonhistone chromosomal proteins that do not have transcriptional activity per se, but they orchestrate the assembly of multiprotein complexes involved in gene transcription, replication and chromatin structure through a complex network of protein–DNA and protein–protein interactions. To better understand their mechanisms of action, we have used a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 1‐D gel SDS‐PAGE and MS to identify new potential molecular interactors. We have found 11 proteins that associate with HMGA1. These proteins belong to three different classes: mRNA processing proteins, RNA helicases and protein chaperones. Some interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and pull‐down experiments in human embryonal kidney 293 cells. These experimental data suggest that HMGA1 proteins can associate with proteins that are strictly involved in chromatin structure and in several important mRNA processing steps, supporting the idea that HMGA1 proteins can also participate in these events.
A Quintessential Lesson from European Union Integration to African Union, Inquiry, 2016, 10.21533/isjss.v2i1.55
1 Comment → add new, Hasan Korkut, Endris Mekonnen Faris
The African Union - a multipurpose cooperation platform which most believe inspired by the European Union - came to exist to transform the continents fate into a prosperous one. European Union unprecedentedly becomes the crucial factor to speed up the Europe’s integration. European Union is an economic community and was not meant, first, a political one. Hence European Union can be a quintessential lesson for the African Union if the later understands the formers achievement came because of the exclusive emphasis given to the economic approach. The paper empirically argues that economic integration leads to an outright continental political unity. Accordingly the continent’s integration can only be achieved when economic approach is given prior emphasis. The political approach is a default which by nature follows the achievements gained from economic approach.
Growth Impact and Determinants of Foreing Direct Investment in Kosovo, Journal of Macroeconomic Dynamics Research, 2013, 10.12966/jmdr.11.01.2013
1 Comment → add new, Nakije Kida
Unilateral gynecomastia: The assessment of 23 patients, Archives of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (ACES), 2016, 10.5455/aces.20160127010538
1 Comment → add new, Salih Basat, Fatih Ceran, Ilker Uscetin, Ismail Akan, Oguzhan Demirel, Mehmet Bozkurt
Seasonal redistribution of water in the surficial Martian regolith: Results from the Mars Odyssey high-energy neutron detector (HEND), Solar System Research, 2007, 10.1134/s0038094607020013
1 Comment → add new, R. O. Kuzmin, E. V. Zabalueva, I. G. Mitrofanov, M. L. Litvak, A. V. Rodin, W. V. Boynton, R. S. Saunders
The seasonal variation of neutron emissions from Mars in different spectral intervals measured by the HEND neutron detector for the entire Martian year are analyzed. Based on these data, the spatial variations of the neutron emissions from the planet are globally mapped as a function of season, and the dynamics of seasonal variation of neutron fluxes with different energies is analyzed in detail. No differences were found between seasonal regimes of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges in the southern hemisphere of Mars, while the regime of fast neutrons (with higher energies) during the northern winter strongly differs from that during the southern winter. In winter (L s = 270°–330°), the fast neutron fluxes are noticeably reduced in the northern hemisphere (along with the consecutive thickening of the seasonal cap of solid carbon dioxide). This provides evidence of a temporary increase in the water content in the effective layer of neutron generation. According to the obtained estimates, the observed reduction of the flux of fast neutrons in the effective layer corresponds to an increase in the water abundance of up to 5% in the seasonal polar cap (70°–90°N), about 3% at mid-latitudes, and from 1.5 to 2% at low latitudes. The freezing out of atmospheric water at the planetary surface (at middle and high latitudes) and the hydration of salt minerals composing the Martian soil are considered as the main processes responsible for the temporary increase in the water content in the soil and upper layer of the seasonal polar cap. The meridional atmospheric transport of water vapor from the summer southern to the winter northern hemisphere within the Hadley circulation cell is a basic process that delivers water to the subsurface soil layer and ensures the observed scale of the seasonal increase in water abundance. In the summer northern hemisphere, the similar Hadley circulation cell transports mainly dry air masses to the winter southern hemisphere. The point is that the water vapor becomes saturated at lower heights during aphelion, and the bulk of the atmospheric water mass is captured in the near-equatorial cloudy belt and, thus, is only weakly transferred to the southern hemisphere. This phenomenon, known as the Clancy effect, was suggested by Clancy et al. (1996) as a basic mechanism for the explanation of the interhemispheric asymmetry of water storage in permanent polar caps. The asymmetry of seasonal meridional circulation of the Martian atmosphere seems to be another factor determining the asymmetry of the seasonal water redistribution in the “atmosphere-regolith-seasonal polar caps” system, found in the peculiarities of the seasonal regime of the neutron emission of Mars.
MicroRNAs in Brain Metastases: Potential Role as Diagnostics and Therapeutics, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2014, 10.3390/ijms150610508
2 Comments → add new, Samer Alsidawi, Ehsan Malek, James Driscoll
Brain metastases remain a daunting adversary that negatively impact patient survival. Metastatic brain tumors affect up to 45% of all cancer patients with systemic cancer and account for ~20% of all cancer-related deaths. A complex network of non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate tumor metastasis. The brain micro-environment modulates metastatic tumor growth; however, defining the precise genetic events that promote metastasis in the brain niche represents an important, unresolved problem. Understanding these events will reveal disease-based targets and offer effective strategies to treat brain metastases. Effective therapeutic strategies based upon the biology of brain metastases represent an urgent, unmet need with immediate potential for clinical impact. Studies have demonstrated the ability of miRNAs to distinguish normal from cancerous cells, primary from secondary brain tumors, and correctly categorize metastatic brain tumor tissue of origin based solely on miRNA profiles. Interestingly, manipulation of miRNAs has proven effective in cancer treatment. With the promise of reduced toxicity, increased efficacy and individually directed personalized anti-cancer therapy, using miRNA in the treatment of metastatic brain tumors may prove very useful and improve patient outcome. In this review, we focus on the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for the treatment of metastatic brain lesions.
Proteolysis Inhibitor E-Aminocaproic Acid as Effective Drug for Prevention and Treatment of Influenza, Other Acute Respiratory Viral Infections and their Bacterial Complications, 1st International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry, 2015, 10.3390/ecmc-1-A050
7 Comments → add new, V. Lozitsky, A. Fedchuk, T. Grydina, L. Shytikova, L. Mudryk, S. Socheslo, M. Lebediuk, O. Voronkov, V. Trykhlib, A. Frolov, V. Zadorozhna, V. Buiko, S. Tkachuk