Haiti is unfortunately the unluckiest tropical island in the world because of not only its political and economical issues but also due to natural disasters happening there. Especially after the earthquake in 2010, the life became more difficult for habitants in Haiti, mainly clean water scarcity and sanitation problems. The aim of this project is to review a range of available emerging sustainable sanitation systems, design and simulate that could provide solutions for Haiti, considering environmental, social and economical aspects after this earthquake. The aim is also to design and simulate the best systems. Finally the project aims to analyze how the best systems could be implemented in IDP Camps and specifically in the Corail Camp in Haiti. The project encompasses: (i) A literature review of waste water treatment in emergency situations, using Haiti as a case study. (ii) An investigation into alternative ways to treat waste water in an area after a disaster. (iii) An analysis based on the needs identified from the Haiti. (iv) The selection of the two best systems and a design and simulation (using BioWin-3.1) for a standard camp block of 1250 people. (v) An analysis of the implication of implementing the two systems in Corail Camp, including economical and climate considerations. The investigation is narrowed down through selection criterion, to the two most feasible systems, the DEWATS (Decentralized Water Treatment system) and composting toilet. The feasibility of these two systems for the camps is proven through simulation and design. Through an economical analysis the two designs were developed for the Corail Camp. As a result, theoretically more than 90 % BOD removal was achieved by DEWATS through simulation and design. The composting toilet could also provide fertilizer for the area which cannot be connected to sewage system. Utilization of gravity in the camp will also reduce pumping requirements for sewage collection system.
Over the last several decades, it has become increasingly accepted that the term xenobiotic relates to environmental impact, since environmental xenobiotics are understood to be substances foreign to a biological system, which did not exist in nature before their synthesis by humans. In this context, xenobiotics are persistent pollutants such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls, as well as plastics and pesticides. Dangerous and unstable situations can result from the presence of environmental xenobiotics since their harmful effects on humans and ecosystems are often unpredictable. For instance, the immune system is extremely vulnerable and sensitive to modulation by environmental xenobitics. Various experimental assays could be performed to ascertain the immunotoxic potential of environmental xenobiotics, taking into account genetic factors, the route of xenobiotic penetration, and the amount and duration of exposure, as well as the wave shape of the xenobiotic. In this paper, we propose an approach for the analysis of xenobiotic metabolism using mathematical model and corresponding methods. This study focuses on a pattern depicting mathematically modelled processes of resonant absorption of a xenobiotic harmonic oscillation by an organism modulated as an absorbing oscillator structure. We represent the xenobiotic concentration degree through a spatial concentration vector, and we model and simulate the oscillating regime of environmental xenobiotic absorption. It is anticipated that the results could be used to facilitate the assessment of the processes of environmental xenobiotic absorption, distribution, biotransformation and removal within the framework of compartmental analysis, by establishing appropriate mathematical models and simulations.
This article proposes a novel and simple methodology to evaluate eco-profiles of usual anthropic activities in order to promote the sustainable development. The case study refers to a standard work day, evaluating the sustainability of the life style of a hypothetical worker, in consideration of different standard meals provided by a canteen and a series of transport options from home to the work place. The eco-profiles of single products were evaluated with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, according to the LCA-food database given by the software SimaPro 7.2.4 (Prè Consultant, 2010). The results of the LCA of single goods are hence linked to a sustainability mark, assigned on the basis of the percentage of their impact in comparison with the most impacting option of each category. The idea to summarize with a mark the eco-profile results of a LCA, aims to simplify the interpretation of results and gives to decision makers and single consumers a fast and comprehensive overview of the environmental consequences associated to different options. Considering this specific case, the results show clearly how dietary habits can largely affect the sustainability of single workers and how the combination of a vegetarian menu with the use of public transport is ever associated to low scores, indexes of very-low impacts.
In the context of this paper, the ways of use of wooden building material in traditional and contemporary Turkish architecture is compared. This comparative analysis is made in terms of ecological, economic and socio-cultural sustainability. The concept of sustainability is envisioned as closely bounded up with the ways of achieving sustainable urban development of the country. In this context, on one hand, the physical and spatial features of traditional wooden buildings - both monumental buildings and examples of civil architecture - are evaluated in terms of sustainability indicators. On the other hand, concerning the same indicators, another evaluation is made for the contemporary examples of wooden architecture. The traditional examples for the comparison are chosen from valuable heritage sites in Turkey, whereas the contemporary ones are chosen from big cities where it is possible to use modern building techniques. The comparative analysis of these two types of buildings, made up of the same building material but having different structural systems and building techniques, enables us to set out the principles of sustainable architecture from past to present and also from tradition to contemporary. It is thought that, the results of this comparative study could light the way for achieving sustainable urban development of settlements with different urban or rural scales in especially developing countries, like Turkey.
The effectiveness of using sugarcane bagasses and modified rice hull as a low cost material for the removal of dyes from both single and binary dye solutions was investigated. Surface morphology analysis was carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Batch and column studies were performed under various experimental conditions. Batch studies revealed that the removal of the studied dyes was both pH and concentration dependent. Maximum sorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir model were in the range of 14.68 - 67.11 mg g-1 in single dye solutions. In column studies, results revealed that breakthrough was influent concentration, flow rate and bed height dependent. The breakthrough curves exhibited the typical S shape of packed bed system.
Context The European Commission (EC) recognised Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as "the best framework for assessing the potential environmental impacts of products". It also identified "the need to improve data availability and quality worldwide by internationally cooperating on LCA data and methods". The life cycle approach is also part of the 2011 Communication on "A resource-efficient Europe – Flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 Strategy". To support these life cycle based EU policies, the EC has started the "European Platform on Life Cycle Assessment (EPCLA)"services (e.g. consulting or research services), tools (e.g. LCA tools, ecodesign tools), databases (e.g. LCI databases) and the corresponding developers and providers. in 2005. This Platform is implemented and coordinated by the EC Directorate-General Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, in close collaboration with DG Environment. The Platform works on the basis of coherent and quality-assured life cycle data, methods, and studies. The LCA Resource Directory is one of the deliverables of the Platform. This application has been running since 2006 and it contains lists of Novelty The LCA Resource Directory has recently been further developed so that it can contain and organize LCA case studies and metadata on these studies. The new LCA Resource Directory will be launched during the Fall 2011. Methods The new functionalities of the LCA Resource Directory allow users (LCA expert and non-expert) to browse a database of LCA studies. Thanks to the searching tool, a user can sort the information available as metadata and identify relevant LCA studies according to his/her interests. Many of the fields of the template used to characterize LCA studies are based on the ISO 1404x series. Some fields of the template are mandatory (e.g. functional unit and system boundary) in order to assure that the information showed in the application fulfills most of the requirements of the ISO 14044 for reports to be disclosed to the public. Other fields of the template include: "Intended application(s)", "LCIA impact categories" and "Compliance". The LCA study has to be uploaded on the Directory. Moreover, a final verification step is performed by the web application administrator to ensure quality and consistency. The application is open worldwide (http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/directory.vm). Any research group, company, university, etc. is now able, after registration, to upload studies and give metadata on them using a template. DG JRC will be in charge of the maintenance of the application and will populate the Directory with the first set of studies during the Fall 2011. An open call to relevant research groups and institutions will be send in order to populate the Directory with registered users and studies. Conclusions With these new capabilities of the Resource Directory, the EPLCA makes progress in its aim of promoting life cycle thinking when making available to all kind of LCA practitioners a good quality database of LCA studies, together with a searching tool.  http://lct.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
The education and business sectors are both important in every nation\'s progress. Hence developing the human capacity within them in the context of education for sustainable development (ESD) is vital in the transition towards sustainability. With the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development drawing to the last third of its phase, evaluation of the progress of ESD, of how learning and education has contributed to sustainability has become important. And although exemplars have been provided, through several capacity strategies, mechanisms, methods practices and initiatives across scales, further identification of other capacity building measures, particularly at the individual, group or community level, in addition to putting in place effective and relevant monitoring and evaluation mechanism(s) is important. The regional centre of expertise (RCE) was set up to advance the ESD agenda at the local and regional levels by enabling a stage for multi-stakeholder engagement. One aspect of RCE Greater Sendai (RCEGS) that has been the least examined is its potential for stakeholder engagement, hence capacity building through collaboration and partnership between the business and education sectors using ESD-based social learning, their networking with other institutions and the overall coordination by the RCE Steering Committee aimed at achieving sustainability in the region. Based on the results (Ofei-Manu and Shimano, accepted) that the levels of sustainability of the organizations in these two sectors were mixed and hence needed improvement, the authors propose a conceptual framework for multi-stakeholder, ESD-based social learning within RCEGS with the hope of enabling the creation of a sustainable society in the region. It was suggested that initially focusing on bridging the two sectors and developing the capacity of the youth with respect to the practical use of the government-mandated \'period of integrated studies\' (PIS) in relation to the "shokuba taiken" internship in the Japanese junior high and high school curriculum and later through RCEGS\' networking and promoting interactions among the actors and stakeholders will be good.
The rapid freight transportation increasing in urban and metropolitan areas contributes to congestion, air pollution, noise and to raise logistic costs, and hence the price of products. In addition, a combination of different types of vehicles on the road increases the risk of accidents. Moreover, the new policies of freight distribution provide daily deliveries. A so far distribution of goods has not been in accordance with people wishes regarding the city\'s space and environment. Sustainable city logistics solutions have to be implemented in order to riduce the effects of freight transport without penalising the life of the city. For example, as it happens in passenger mobility we can brave the problems related to externalities related to transport addressing to transit. It allows us to do not reduce accessibility and penalise the life of the city. At the same way, city logistics has to investigate the possible solutions that allow us to reduce externalities, to increase sustainability without damaging the city life. Around the world, different types of city logistics measures have been proposed and implemented, but sometimes they have not given the expected results. Thus, as it happens in the analysis of passenger mobility, in which we have different classes of measures that can be implemented in relation to city structure and level of demand, the same should be desired for freight mobility. In this context, the paper, within the field of city logistics sustainability, recalls the overview of measures to be implemented, in a "what if" framework, with strong references to the ex-post assessment carried out in order to support the definition of city logistics scenarios that should have to be evaluated ex-ante by simulation models. The analysis is done in relation to the goals of environemntal sustainability to be pursued and the main characteristics of analysed cities (e.g. population, density). In other words, the study presents the empirical relations among outcomes (e.g. reduction of greenhouse – CO2 - or air pollutant emissions – CO, NOx, SOx, PM) and city logistics measures. Both qualitative and quantitative trends of expected results related to environmental sustainability in function of city characteristics will be deepened. From this type of analysis, it will be possible to identify the maximum expected reduction of externalities obtainable from a given city logistics measure in relation to a specific city.
Production of biodiesel from microalgae is a promising step toward sustainability. The superiority of microalgae to their counterpart sources of biomass lies in many favorable characteristics of microalgae such as high biodiesel productivity, low land use and carbon dioxide biofixation. Sunlight as an effective parameter in growth and cultivation of various microalgae species is an aspect of concern in design and operation of photobioreactors. In this communication, we present a simple measuring system which can provide the effect of sunlight irradiance in photobioreactors qualitatively. The system is very low cost and can be connected to an ordinary personal computer to monitor sunlight intensity to a photobioreactor. Based on a set of experiments a calibration curve for the measuring system is also given. The proposed system can contribute to optimal growth of microalgae inside large scale photobioreactors as well as to lab scale research projects.