G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are seven transmembrane proteins initiating a wide range of signals that affect numerous physiological and pathological processes. As therapeutic targets, they have accounted for nearly 30% of the successful receptor-based drug treatments of disorders ranging from hypertension and allergy to clinical depression.
While a great deal of information has been gathered with regard to their structure, classification, signaling properties and unique mode of "biased" (or "functionally selective") GPCR signalling pathways, it is now timely to define their role in tumor biology. Despite the fact that many GPCRs belonging to different subclasses have emerged with central roles in cancer development, as yet no known cancer-therapeutic GPCR-targeted drug is in clinical practice. Of note, the genomic, transcriptomic and immunohistochemical analyses of tumour tissues has revealed a 20% incidence of GPCR mutations in many cancers; and an upregulation of wild-type GPCRs has been documented, due to multiple mechanisms. Thus, an increased understanding of the ways GPCRs can act as cancer drivers is highly warranted.
The Need Met by This Special Issue
Given the above information, it is thus the goal of this Special Issue to highlight the roles that GPCRs may play in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and survival at both the primary and secondary metastatic sites, including the cancer stem cell niche. It is intended to emphasize the great potential of targeting GPCRs to treat cancer.
For each of a number of selected GPCRs, including the adhesion and frizzled (FZD) families, along with the Class A, B and C receptors, contributors are asked to provide a concise overview of the current receptor cell biology, their potential as cancer drivers and their potential as therapeutic targets in the setting of cancer.
Prof. Dr. Rachel Bar-ShavitProf. Dr. Morley D. HollenbergGuest Editors
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018
Visit the website: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/gpcr_cancer
In the normal aging process, both cumulative oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) play key roles. Moreover, advanced age is associated with increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, which share oxidative stress and inflammation as pivotal players. It is evident that oxidative stress and inflammation have interdependent mechanisms, and are able to induce and exacerbate each other. Indeed, aging has been associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a concomitant antioxidant systems’ impairment, favouring inflammaging. This Special Issue is devoted to disentangling and understanding some of these intricate mechanisms, in order to identify the major contributor(s) of ageing and age-related diseases. In addition, multidisciplinary approaches are strongly desirable to pinpoint new strategies able to interfere with oxidative stress and inflammaging in order to delay the onset of age-related pathologies and provide a healthy lifespan of aging population in the long run.
Prof. Dr. Daniela MontiGuest Editor
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018
Visit the special issue website: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/inflammaging_oxidative_stress
The ERK signaling pathway plays a central role in the control of various cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, differentiation and development, but apoptosis and stress response as well. Compartmentalization and dynamic localization of ERK signaling is an important regulatory mechanism of specific biological processes. Consistent with its critical role in key cellular functions, deviation in the normal activities of this pathway has been implicated in the development of many human diseases involving different organs. In particular, mutations hitting the ERK signaling are involved in autosomal-dominant syndromes known as RASopathies. The major complications of these disorders are congenital cardiac defects and development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, in the neuronal system ERK has been correlated to different pathological contexts, including stroke, autism and neurodegenerative diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In the nervous system ERK pathway regulates various cellular activities including neuron apoptosis through induction of excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and innate immunity. In addition, ERK has been deeply investigated as anti-cancer target molecule for its important role in tumorigenesis in particular in cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Finally, ERK has been also associated to the development of side effects derived from anti-cancer therapies, such as cardiotoxicity due to chemotherapeutic treatments. Overall, these data suggest that a major comprehension of the pathological mechanisms regulated by the ERK pathway will allow the development of new functional therapies for a great range of diseases with a strong impact on public health.
In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences the focus will be on the role of the ERK signaling pathway in various pathologies, such as cancer, developmental disorders and diseases affecting the cardiovascular and nervous system.
Professor Tiziana Crepaldi
Special Issue Submission Deadline: Early 2019.
IJMS (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)Impact Factor 3.226 (2016 Journal Citation Reports®)Homepage: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijmsLindedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/ijmsjournalIJMS channel on Twitter (@IJMS_MDPI)
Dear Colleagues,Once considered “metabolic garbage”, ketones have become the focus of significant efforts within the realm of cardiometabolic research. Recent discoveries have revealed that ketones, such as acetoacetate and its precursor β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB), are not only viable fuel sources for all cells with mitochondria, including the brain, but are also legitimate signaling molecules, eliciting advantageous changes in inflammation, cognition, oxidative stress, and more. Beyond pathology, ketones may also be a relevant metabolic fuel in the context of physical activity, insofar as ketone-adapted athletes appear to outperform conventional glucose-adapted athletes. Whether through diets sufficiently low in carbohydrate consumption to induce hepatic ketogenesis or the consumption of exogenous ketones, limited evidence suggests a generally favorable metabolic milieu.We invite authors to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles that will illustrate and stimulate the blossoming effort to understand the role of ketones in diverse metabolic models and conditions. The accepted papers will highlight to readers the metabolic relevance of ketones and, thus, potentially provide a new paradigm on the role of ketones in altering cellular function.Special Issue Submission Deadline: 31 December 2018Dr. Benjamin T. BikmanDr. Paul R. ReynoldsDr. Daniel A. KaneDr. Katsu FunaiGuest EditorsIJMS (International Journal of Molecular Sciences)Impact Factor 3.226 (2016 Journal Citation Reports®)Homepage: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijmsLindedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/ijmsjournalIJMS channel on Twitter (@IJMS_MDPI)
Materials processing is the first, and a key, step in proper utilization of the composition of a given material and to realize the microstructural features that are intended to attain desired property levels for a given application. Both primary and secondary processing methods are equally important in tailoring the end properties of materials. In view of the crucial importance of the processing of materials, this Special Issue is intending to cover all innovative aspects of primary processing (solid phase, liquid phase, two phase, 3D printing, rapid solidification, etc.) and secondary processing (such as variations in extrusion, forging, rolling, equichannel angular extrusion, etc.) of materials (polymers/ metal/ceramic-based, including their composites). Desirable attributes expected for submission will be processing–microstructure–property interrelations.
Prof. Manoj GuptaGuest Editor
Special Issue Link: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/technologies/special_issues/rev_adv
Human transformation of landscapes is pervasive and accelerating across the Earth. Increasingly, rapid urbanization and a rising per capita resource use are driving agricultural intensification, large-scale land acquisitions, and global supply chain demands that are reshaping the ecology of landscapes across the Earth’s land surface. As a result, it is possible that the greatest impacts of urban societies are occurring outside of cities, as profound alterations of Earth’s topography, climate, ecosystems, soil physical and chemical properties, and associated Earth-surface processes. Remote sensing data can greatly assist in the monitoring of anthropogenic landscapes, and analyzing any effects of human activities on Earth-surface processes.
The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the state of science on the use of remote sensing for the analysis of human impacts on Earth. Multi-temporal remote sensing analysis, and specific case studies of different regions of the world, are welcomed.
Publication: as paper accepted they will appear in the special issue web-page.
Type of special issue: Open for all submissions within the scope of the special issue. In addition to scientific papers, we encourage 1 paper review and 2 short commentaries.
See details at, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing/special_issues/Anthropocene
Dr. Paolo TarolliDr. Jinwei DongDr. Erle C. EllisGuest Editors
Mutualistic symbiosis is a widespread phenomenon in nature in which the partner species benefit mutually. Symbioses between microorganisms, usually bacteria and eukaryotic hosts, have been extensively studied in recent years, taking advantage of the advances in computational and omic technologies (genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics), and systems biology (modelling metabolic networks and host-symbiont interactions). In the evolutionary history of symbiosis, there are cases where the eukaryotic host harbours one or few intracellular symbionts (endosymbionts), others where the host lives with a multitude of species located in the intestine or in other organs (ectosymbionts) and, finally, although not as frequent, the case of hosts that harbour both endo- and ectosimbionts.
The objective of the present Special Issue of Life is to bring together original research and reviews on the evolution of microbial mutualistic symbioses, in which two or more prokaryote species and a eukaryotic host are integrated at the behavioral, metabolic and genetic level. The broad scope of this Special Issue encompasses studies focused on every perspective on mutualistic symbiosis, including:
Prof. Dr. Amparo LatorreDr. Rosario Gil Guest Editors