Monitoring and Assessment of Water Retention Measures in Agricultural Land
Published: 21 December 2017 by IOP Publishing in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
IOP Publishing, Volume 95; 10.1088/1755-1315/95/2/022008
Abstract: One of the most interesting events, from the environmental impact point of view, is the huge storm rainfall at which soil degradation processes occur. In Slovakia, agricultural areas with a higher slope have been recently increasingly denudated by water erosion processes. Areas having regular problems with muddy floods and denudation of soil particles have been currently identified. This phenomenon has long-term adverse consequences in the agricultural landscape, especially the decline in soil fertility, the influence on soil type and the reduction of depth of the soil profile. In the case of storm rainfall or long-term precipitation, soil particles are being transported and deposited at the foot of the slope, but in many cases the large amounts of sediment are transported by water in the form of muddy floods, while putting settlements and industrial zones at risk, along with contamination and clogging of watercourses and water reservoirs. These unfavourable phenomena may be prevented by appropriate management and application of technical measures, such as water level ditches, erosion-control weirs, terraces and others. The study deals with determination of the soil loss and denudation of soil particles caused by water erosion, as well as with determination of the volume of the surface runoff created by the regional torrential rains in the area of the village of Sobotište. The research is based on the analysis of flood and erosion-control measures implemented in this area. Monitoring of these level ditches for protection against muddy floods has been carried out since 2015 using UAV technology and terrestrial laser scanning. Monitoring is aimed on determination of the volume of the ditch, changes in its capacity and shape in each year. The study evaluates both the effectiveness of these measures to reduce the surface runoff as well as the amount of eroded soil particles depending on climatological conditions. The results of the research point to the good efficiency of these measures; however, in conjunction with belt crops cultivation they could form a comprehensive flood and erosion-control protection to eliminate the muddy floods and protect the settlements from surrounding slopes.
Keywords: control measures, environmental impact, Erosion, floods, muddy, rainfall, risk, settlements, Slovakia, TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING