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High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 μm wavelength band
Wei Cao, 1 David Hagan, 2 David J. Thomson, 1 Milos Nedeljkovic, 1 Callum G. Littlejohns, 1 Andy Knights, 2 Shaif-Ul Alam, 1 Junjia Wang, 1 Frederic Gardes, 1 Weiwei Zhang, 1 Shenghao Liu, 1 Ke Li, 1 Mohamed Said Rouifed, 3 Guo Xin, 3 Wanjun Wang, 3 Hong Wang, 3 Graham T. Reed, 1 Goran Z. Mashanovich 1
1  Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ, UK
2  Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8 S 4L7, Canada
3  Silicon Technologies Centre of Excellence, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore

Published: 28 August 2018 by The Optical Society in Optica
The Optical Society, Volume 5; 10.1364/optica.5.001055
Abstract: The 2 μm wavelength band has become a promising candidate to be the next communication window. We demonstrate high-speed modulators based on a 220 nm silicon-on-insulator platform working at a wavelength of 1950 nm, using the free carrier plasma dispersion effect in silicon. A Mach–Zehnder interferometer modulator and a microring modulator have been characterized. At 1950 nm, the carrier-depletion modulator operates at a data rate of 20 Gbit/s with an extinction ratio of 5.8 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB. The modulation efficiency (Vπ·Lπ) is 2.68 V·cm at 4 V reverse bias. The device operation is broadband, and we also characterize its performance at 1550 nm. At 1550 nm, an open eye is obtained at 30 Gbit/s. The difference in bandwidth is caused by the bandwidth limit of the 2 μm measurement setup. We also show a ring modulator paired with a low power integrated driver working in hybrid carrier depletion and injection mode at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s with power consumption of 2.38 pJ/bit in the 2 μm wavelength range. This work is a proof of principle demonstration and paves a route toward a full silicon-based transceiver in the 2 μm window.
Keywords: Printed Circuit Boards, effective refractive index, Silicon Modulators, photonic bandgap fibers, Extinction Ratios, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers
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