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Experimental quantification of the free-carrier effect in silicon waveguides at extended wavelengths
David E. Hagan 1 , Milos Nedeljkovic, 2 Wei Cao, 2 David J. Thomson, 2 Goran Z. Mashanovich, 2 Andrew P. Knights 1
1  Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada
2  Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK

Published: 03 January 2019 by The Optical Society in Optics Express
The Optical Society, Volume 27; 10.1364/oe.27.000166
Abstract: We examine the electro-optic effect at wavelengths ranging from 1.31 to 2.02 μm for: (1) an Electronic Variable Optical Attenuator (EVOA); and (2) a Micro-Ring Resonator (MRR). For the EVOA, simulations were performed to ascertain the relationship between free-carrier concentration and optical attenuation, and are in agreement with our observation of an increase in attenuation with increasing wavelength. MRRs were fabricated for use around wavelengths of 2 μm to explore the sensitivity of operation to bus-to-ring coupling gap and p-n junction offset. Trends observed in the experiment are replicated by simulation, calibrated using the observations of the EVOA operation. The previously proposed efficiency increase of operation around 2 μm compared to more traditional wavelengths is demonstrated. Future development of devices for these wavelengths, supported by amplification using Thulium Doped Fiber Amplifier (TDFA) technology, is a promising route to aid in the alleviation of increasing demands on communication networks.
Keywords: fiber lasers, phase modulation, nonlinear optics, diode lasers, Variable Optical Attenuators, photonic bandgap fibers
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