An FPGA-Based WASN for Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Endangered Species: A Case Study on the Birdsong Recognition of Botaurus stellaris
Published: 08 June 2017 by MDPI in Sensors
MDPI, Volume 17; 10.3390/s17061331
Abstract: Fast environmental variations due to climate change can cause mass decline or even extinctions of species, having a dramatic impact on the future of biodiversity. During the last decade, different approaches have been proposed to track and monitor endangered species, generally based on costly semi-automatic systems that require human supervision adding limitations in coverage and time. However, the recent emergence of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed non-intrusive remote monitoring of endangered species in real time through the automatic identification of the sound they emit. In this work, an FPGA-based WASN centralized architecture is proposed and validated on a simulated operation environment. The feasibility of the architecture is evaluated in a case study designed to detect the threatened Botaurus stellaris among other 19 cohabiting birds species in The Parc Natural dels Aiguamolls de l’Empordà, showing an averaged recognition accuracy of 91% over 2h 55’ of representative data. The FPGA-based feature extraction implementation allows the system to process data from 30 acoustic sensors in real time with an affordable cost. Finally, several open questions derived from this research are discussed to be considered for future works.
Keywords: Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks, FPGA, Remote Real-time Monitoring, Birdsong Recognition, Endangered species, Botaurus Stellaris