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Application of remote sensing techniques to discriminate between conventional and organic vineyards in the Loire Valley, France
Rafael E. Sarate, Jandyra M. G. Fachel, Jorge R. Ducati

Published: 30 September 2014 by Universite de Bordeaux in OENO One
Universite de Bordeaux, Volume 48; 10.20870/oeno-one.2014.48.3.1574
Abstract: Aim: To test the use of Remote Sensing imagery and techniques to differentiate between conventional and organic vineyards.Methods and results: Conventional and organic vineyards were identified on three satellite images acquired by the ASTER sensor of the Loire Valley. A sample of 46 conventional and 12 organic plots was used; grape varieties were Chenin Blanc (33 plots) and Cabernet Franc (25 plots). Mean reflectances were extracted from pixels inside each plot for the nine spectral bands (visible and infrared) of ASTER. A statistical discriminant analysis was performed. The vegetation index NDVI was also analysed. Results showed that all 12 organic plots, and 41 out of 46 conventional plots were correctly separated, a 91.4% success rate. Also, 23 out of 25 Cabernet, and 30 out of 33 Chenin plots were also correctly identified, also a 91.4% success rate. Regarding NDVI, there are no differences between conventional and organic vineyards within a 5% significant level. Analyses focused on the influences of chemical treatments on vineyard colors and on the effects of light reflected by inter-row spaces, suggested that both processes introduce spectral changes in conventional vineyards, mainly in short-wave infrared. Results also indicate that infrared information is essential to spectral discrimination.Conclusion: The use of chemicals, typical to conventional viticulture, has an impact on leaf composition and cell structure, being an important factor to imprint a characteristic reflectance pattern to these vineyards; the contribution to the integrated reflectance from inter-row vegetation is probably also a differentiating factor. Both causes act synergistically to build a significant spectral difference between conventional and organic vineyards.Significance and impact of the study: Remote Sensing techniques can be used as a first approach to vineyard monitoring, producing relevant information on viticultural methods, which can be used as early indicators of the need for field inspection or conventional laboratory analysis.
Keywords: discriminate, Application of Remote Sensing, Loire Valley, Organic Vineyards, France, sensing techniques
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