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Silicon-on-insulator free-carrier injection modulators for the mid-infrared
M. Nedeljkovic 1 , C. G. Littlejohns, 1 A. Z. Khokhar, 1 M. Banakar, 1 W. Cao, 1 J. Soler Penades, 1 D. T. Tran, 1 F. Y. Gardes, 1 D. J. Thomson, 1 G. T. Reed, 1 H. Wang, 2 G. Z. Mashanovich 1
1  Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
2  Silicon Technologies Centre of Excellence, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore, Singapore

Published: 11 February 2019 by The Optical Society in Optics Letters
The Optical Society, Volume 44; 10.1364/ol.44.000915
Abstract: Experimental demonstrations of silicon-on-insulator waveguide-based free-carrier effect modulators operating at 3.8 μm are presented. PIN diodes are used to inject carriers into the waveguides, and are configured to (a) use free-carrier electroabsorption to create a variable optical attenuator with 34 dB modulation depth and (b) use free-carrier electrorefraction with the PIN diodes acting as phase shifters in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, achieving a VπLπ of 0.052 V·mm and a DC modulation depth of 22 dB. Modulation is demonstrated at data rates up to 125 Mbit/s.
Keywords: refractive index, effective refractive index, Absorption coefficient, Variable Optical Attenuators, PIN Photodiodes, Quantum cascade semiconductor lasers
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