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Corrigendum
Published: 25 April 2018 by Oxford University Press in Schizophrenia Bulletin
Oxford University Press, 10.1093/schbul/sby055
Corrigendum to “Actissist: Proof-of-Concept Trial of a Theory-Driven Digital Intervention for Psychosis” by Sandra Bucci et al. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2018. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sby032.
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Cytosolic Cysteine Synthase Switch Cysteine and Mimosine Production in Leucaena leucocephala
Md. Harun-Ur-Rashid, Hironori Iwasaki, Shahanaz Parveen, Shigeki Oogai, Masakazu Fukuta , Md. Amzad Hossain, Toyoaki Anai, Hirosuke Oku
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Springer-Verlag, 10.1007/s12010-018-2745-z
In higher plants, multiple copies of the cysteine synthase gene are present for cysteine biosynthesis. Some of these genes also have the potential to produce various kinds of β-substitute alanine. In the present study, we cloned a 1275-bp cDNA for cytosolic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (cysteine synthase) (Cy-OASTL) from Leucaena leucocephala. The purified protein product showed a dual function of cysteine and mimosine synthesis. Kinetics studies showed pH optima of 7.5 and 8.0, while temperature optima of 40 and 35 °C, respectively, for cysteine and mimosine synthesis. The kinetic parameters such as apparent Km, kcat were determined for both cysteine and mimosine synthesis with substrates O-acetylserine (OAS) and Na2S or 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P). From the in vitro results with the common substrate OAS, the apparent kcat for Cys production is over sixfold higher than mimosine synthesis and the apparent Km is 3.7 times lower, suggesting Cys synthesis is the favored pathway.
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Effect of Enzymatic Digestion of Protein Derivatives Obtained from Mucuna pruriens L. on Production of Proinflammatory Mediators by BALB/c Mouse Macrophages
Edwin E. Martínez Leo, Victor E. Arana Argáez, Juan J. Acevedo Fernández, Rosa Moo Puc, Maira R. Segura Campos
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Springer-Verlag, 10.1007/s12010-018-2740-4
Inflammation is considered to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of chronic non-communicable diseases. Macrophages are important immune cells, which regulate inflammation and host defense by secretion of proinflammatory mediators. Obtaining biopeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis adds value to proteins of vegetative origin, such as Mucuna pruriens L. The present study evaluated the effect of enzymatic digestion of protein derivatives obtained from M. pruriens L. on the production of proinflammatory mediators by BALB/c mouse macrophages. Five different molecular weight peptide fractions were obtained (F > 10, 5–10, 3–5, 1–3, and < 1 kDa, respectively). At 300 μg/mL, F5–10 kDa inhibited 50.26 and 61.00% NO and H2O2 production, respectively. Moreover, F5–10 kDa reduced the IL-6 and TNFα levels to 60.25 and 69.54%, respectively. After enzymatic digestive simulation, F5–10 kDa decreased the inflammatory mediators.
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Linear systems over localizations of rings
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Archiv der Mathematik
Springer-Verlag, 10.1007/s00013-018-1183-z
We describe a method for solving linear systems over the localization of a commutative ring R at a multiplicatively closed subset S that works under the following hypotheses: the ring R is coherent, i.e., we can compute finite generating sets of row syzygies of matrices over R, and there is an algorithm that decides for any given finitely generated ideal \(I \subseteq R\) the existence of an element r in \(S \cap I\) and in the affirmative case computes r as a concrete linear combination of the generators of I.
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Trends of absorption, scattering and total aerosol optical depths over India and surrounding oceanic regions from satellite observations: role of local production, transport and atmospheric dynamics
Sudhakaran Syamala Prijith , Pamaraju Venkata Narasimha Rao, Mannil Mohan, Mullapudi Venkata Rama Sesha Sai, Muvva Venkata Ramana
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Springer-Verlag, 10.1007/s11356-018-2032-0
The study examines trends of scattering, absorption and total aerosol optical depths (SAOD, AAOD and AOD) over India and surrounding oceanic regions and explores role of local production, long-range transport and atmospheric dynamics on observed trends. Long-term satellite observations are used to estimate trends and assess their statistical significance. Significant spatial and seasonal changes are observed in trends of SAOD, AAOD and AOD. AOD is observed to be increasing during post monsoon and winter over most of the land mass and surrounding oceanic regions, whereas decreasing trends over land and increasing trends over oceanic regions are observed in pre-monsoon and summer months. In general, SAOD and AAOD show similar trends (if there is any) as that of AOD over most of the regions in most of the months. Strongest positive trends over land regions are observed in November with trend of AOD greater than 0.01 year−1, especially over Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Increase of AOD over IGP in post monsoon is contributed significantly by absorbing aerosols with rate of increase ~ 0.005 AAOD year−1. AAODs are observed to be increasing over Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (BoB) in December also, with rate ~ 0.003 AAOD year−1. Strongest positive trends over Arabian Sea and BoB are observed in June with rate of increase greater than 0.02 AOD year−1, whereas strong negative trends are observed over north-west India in the same period with rate of decrease greater than 0.02 AOD year−1. Over IGP, AOD, AAOD and SAOD show contrasting trends in winter and summer seasons. AAOD exhibits strongest decreasing trend over IGP during April–June. Positive trends of AOD over Arabian Sea and BoB are favoured significantly by changes in circulation dynamics. Atmospheric convergence is observed to be strengthening over these regions in April and June, leading to more accumulation and hence positive trends of AOD. Aerosol transport over to the Arabian Sea is observed to be enhancing and contributing significantly to AOD increase over the Arabian Sea in pre-monsoon and summer months. Enhancement in aerosol transport over to the Arabian Sea is observed in pre-monsoon at higher altitudes above 3 km, whereas it is observed in summer at lower levels. However, decreasing trends of AOD over north-west India and IGP during pre-monsoon and summer are observed to be due to decrease in aerosol transport from the continental regions at the west.
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Combinatory RNA-Sequencing Analyses Reveal a Dual Mode of Gene Regulation by ADAR1 in Gastric Cancer
Charles J. Cho, Jaeeun Jung, Lushang Jiang, Eun Ji Lee, Dae-Soo Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Hee Sung Kim, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Ho-June Song, Sung Wook Hwang, Yangsoon Park, Min Kyo Jung, Chan Gi Pack, Seung-Jae Myung , Suhwan Chang
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Springer-Verlag, 10.1007/s10620-018-5081-9
Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is known to mediate deamination of adenosine-to-inosine through binding to double-stranded RNA, the phenomenon known as RNA editing. Currently, the function of ADAR1 in gastric cancer is unclear. This study was aimed at investigating RNA editing-dependent and editing-independent functions of ADAR1 in gastric cancer, especially focusing on its influence on editing of 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) and subsequent changes in expression of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). RNA-sequencing and small RNA-sequencing were performed on AGS and MKN-45 cells with a stable ADAR1 knockdown. Changed frequencies of editing and mRNA and miRNA expression were then identified by bioinformatic analyses. Targets of RNA editing were further validated in patients’ samples. In the Alu region of both gastric cell lines, editing was most commonly of the A-to-I type in 3′-UTR or intron. mRNA and protein levels of PHACTR4 increased in ADAR1 knockdown cells, because of the loss of seed sequences in 3′-UTR of PHACTR4 mRNA that are required for miRNA-196a-3p binding. Immunohistochemical analyses of tumor and paired normal samples from 16 gastric cancer patients showed that ADAR1 expression was higher in tumors than in normal tissues and inversely correlated with PHACTR4 staining. On the other hand, decreased miRNA-148a-3p expression in ADAR1 knockdown cells led to increased mRNA and protein expression of NFYA, demonstrating ADAR1’s editing-independent function. ADAR1 regulates post-transcriptional gene expression in gastric cancer through both RNA editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanisms.
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Preliminary experimental study on applicability of Lorentz force velocimetry in an external magnetic field
Yan-qing TAN, Run-Cong Liu, Shang-Jun Dai, Xiao-Dong Wang , Ming-Jiu Ni, Juan-Cheng Yang, Nataliia Dubovikova, Yurii Kolesnikov, Christian Karcher
Published: 25 April 2018 by Springer-Verlag in Nuclear Science and Techniques
Springer-Verlag, Volume 29; 10.1007/s41365-018-0426-9
Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a noncontact technique for measuring electrically conducting fluids based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This work aims to answer the open and essential question of whether LFV can work properly under a surrounding external magnetic field (ExMF). Two types of ExMFs with different magnetic intensities were examined: a magnetic field with a typical order of 0.4 T generated by a permanent magnet (PM) and another generated by an electromagnet (EM) on the order of 2 T. Two forces, including the magnetostatic force between the ExMF and PM in the LFV, and the Lorentz force generated by the PM in LFV were measured and analyzed in the experiment. In addition, ExMFs of varying strengths were added to the LFV, and the location of the LFV device in the iron cores of the EM was considered. The experimental outcomes demonstrate that it is possible for a LFV device to operate normally under a moderate ExMF. However, the magnetostatic force will account for a high proportion of the measured force, thus inhibiting the normal LFV operation, if the ExMF is too high.
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Immediate Early Genes, Memory and Psychiatric Disorders: Focus on c-Fos, Egr1 and Arc
Francisco T. Gallo, Cynthia Katche, Juan F. Morici, Jorge H. Medina, Noelia V. Weisstaub
Published: 25 April 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 12; 10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00079
Many psychiatric disorders, despite their specific characteristics, share deficits in the cognitive domain including executive functions, emotional control and memory. However, memory deficits have been in many cases undervalued compared with other characteristics. The expression of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) such as, c-fos, Egr1 and arc are selectively and promptly upregulated in learning and memory among neuronal subpopulations in regions associated with these processes. Changes in expression in these genes have been observed in recognition, working and fear related memories across the brain. Despite the enormous amount of data supporting changes in their expression during learning and memory and the importance of those cognitive processes in psychiatric conditions, there are very few studies analyzing the direct implication of the IEGs in mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the role of some of the most relevant IEGs in relation with memory processes affected in psychiatric conditions.
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The Physiological Roles of Amyloid-β Peptide Hint at New Ways to Treat Alzheimer's Disease
Holly M. Brothers, Maya L. Gosztyla, Stephen R. Robinson
Published: 25 April 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 10; 10.3389/fnagi.2018.00118
Amyloid-ß (Aß) is best known as the misfolded peptide that is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is currently the primary therapeutic target in attempts to arrest the course of this disease. This notoriety has overshadowed evidence that Aß serves several important physiological functions. Aß is present throughout the lifespan, it has been found in all vertebrates examined thus far, and its molecular sequence shows a high degree of conservation. These features are typical of a factor that contributes significantly to biological fitness, and this suggestion has been supported by evidence of functions that are beneficial for the brain. The putative roles of Aß include protecting the body from infections, repairing leaks in the blood-brain barrier, promoting recovery from injury, and regulating synaptic function. Evidence for these beneficial roles comes from in vitro and in vivo studies, which have shown that the cellular production of Aß rapidly increases in response to a physiological challenge and often diminishes upon recovery. These roles are further supported by the adverse outcomes of clinical trials that have attempted to deplete Aß in order to treat AD. We suggest that anti-Aß therapies will produce fewer adverse effects if the known triggers of Aß deposition (e.g., pathogens, hypertension, and diabetes) are addressed first.
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