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Papers from Scilit (113 575 490)
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Characterisation of a Hydroxycinnamic Acid Esterase From the Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Taxon
Sandra M. Kelly, John O’Callaghan, Mike Kinsella, Douwe Van Sinderen
Published: 09 November 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Microbiology
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 9; 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02690
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, a common member of the human gut microbiota with perceived positive health effects, is capable of metabolising certain complex, plant-derived carbohydrates which are commonly found in the (adult) human diet. These plant glycans may be employed to favourably modulate the microbial communities in the intestine. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are plant phenolic compounds, which are attached to glycans, and which are associated with anti-oxidant and other beneficial properties. However, very little information is available regarding metabolism of HCA-containing glycans by bifidobacteria. In the current study, a gene encoding a hydroxycinnamic acid esterase was found to be conserved across the B. longum subsp. longum taxon and was present in a conserved locus associated with plant carbohydrate utilisation. The esterase was shown to be active against various HCA-containing substrates and was biochemically characterised in terms of substrate preference, and pH and temperature optima of the enzyme. This novel hydroxycinnamic acid esterase is presumed to be responsible for the release of HCAs from plant-based dietary sources, a process that may have benefits for the gut environment and thus host health.
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Pemphigus Foliaceus—Repeated Treatment With Rituximab 7 Years After Initial Response: A Case Report
Magdalena Kraft, Margitta Worm
Published: 09 November 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Medicine
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 5; 10.3389/fmed.2018.00315
Pemphigus foliaceus is an autoimmune skin disease mediated by autoantibodies directed against desmoglein-1 located in the upper epidermal layer. Rituximab, a monoclonal anit-CD20 antibody depleting b-cells, offers an effective treatment possibility for therapy-resistant pemphigus foliaceus. Here, we present the case of 55-year-old man who did not respond sufficiently to conventional treatment with prednisolone, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, but underwent almost complete remission after rituximab treatment. The patient relapsed 7 years later, and a repeated course of rituximab infusions led to a partial remission.
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Wear Properties of Ash Minerals in Biomass
Jeffrey A. Lacey, John E. Aston, Vicki S. Thompson
Published: 09 November 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Energy Research
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 6; 10.3389/fenrg.2018.00119
Ash in biomass is believed to damage biorefinery equipment due to its abrasive properties. All biomass contains at least some ash, or inorganic content, as a result of normal physiological processes. The concentration of biogenic ash in biomass is largely species dependent; however it can also be affected by weather patterns, irrigation, soil type, and fertilizer applications. Ash concentrations in harvested biomass can also be elevated due to the incorporation of soil and dust during the harvest and collection processes. While ash concentration in biomass is important, so also is the mineral form of the ash. Certain mineral forms of ash can be much harder than the steels used to construct biorefinery equipment and cause excessive wear. In this perspective, the relative concentrations of ash elements, mineral forms of ash, and the hardness of these minerals are considered to identify ash components of concern to biorefinery operators. Strategies are suggested to remove ash from harvested biomass to reduce the risk of excessive wear on biomass processing equipment.
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Protein-Based Structures for Food Applications: From Macro to Nanoscale
Joana T. Martins, Ana I. Bourbon, Ana C. Pinheiro, Luiz H. Fasolin, António A. Vicente
Published: 09 November 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 2; 10.3389/fsufs.2018.00077
Novel food structures' development through handling of macroscopic and microscopic properties of bio-based materials (e.g., size, shape, and texture) is receiving a lot of attention since it allows controlling or changing structures' functionality. Proteins are among the most abundant and employed biomaterials in food technology. They are excellent candidates for creating novel food structures due to their nutritional value, biodegradability, biocompatibility, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status and molecular characteristics. Additionally, the exploitation of proteins' gelation and aggregation properties can be used to encapsulate bioactive compounds inside their network and produce consistent delivery systems at macro-, micro-, and nanoscale. Consequently, bioactive compounds which are exposed to harsh storage and processing conditions and digestion environment may be protected and their bioavailability could be enhanced. In this review, a range of functional and structural properties of proteins which can be explored to develop macro-, micro-, and nanostructures with numerous promising food applications was discussed. Also, this review points out the relevance of scale on these structures' properties, allowing appropriate tailoring of protein-based systems such as hydrogels and micro- or nanocapsules to be used as bioactive compounds delivery systems. Finally, the behavior of these systems in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the impact on bioactive compound bioavailability are thoroughly discussed.
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Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Organoids for Modeling Alpha Synuclein Propagation in Parkinson's Disease
Yong Hui Koh, Li Yi Tan, Shi-Yan Ng
Published: 09 November 2018 by Frontiers Media SA in Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Frontiers Media SA, Volume 12; 10.3389/fncel.2018.00413
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-associated, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairment and in some cases cognitive decline. Central to the disease pathogenesis of PD is a small, presynaptic neuronal protein known as alpha synuclein (a-syn), which tends to accumulate and aggregate in PD brains as Lewy bodies or Lewy neurites. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies confirm that a-syn aggregates can be propagated from diseased to healthy cells, and it has been suggested that preventing the spread of pathogenic a-syn species can slow PD progression. In this review, we summarize the works of recent literature elucidating mechanisms of a-syn propagation, and discussed the advantages in using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and/or induced neurons to study a-syn transmission.
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