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Susan Lee   Dr.  Institute, Department or Faculty Head 
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Susan Lee published an article in March 2018.
Top co-authors See all
Chris D.F. Rogers

84 shared publications

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Rachel Cooper

83 shared publications

Imagination, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK

Jane Falkingham

67 shared publications

Centre for Global Health, Population, Poverty and Policy, Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

A.S. Bahaj

66 shared publications

Energy & Climate Change Division, Sustainable Energy Research Group (energy.soton.ac.uk), Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

John Urry

45 shared publications

Lancaster University, Department of Sociology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK

7
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27
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25
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Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2016 - 2018)
Total number of journals
published in
 
6
 
Publications See all
Article 11 Reads 1 Citation EATS: a life cycle-based decision support tool for local authorities and school caterers Valeria De Laurentiis, Dexter V. L. Hunt, Susan E. Lee, Chri... Published: 16 March 2018
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, doi: 10.1007/s11367-018-1460-x
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This paper describes the research that underpins the development of EATS (the Environmental Assessment Tool for School meals), a life cycle-based decision support tool for local authorities and their contractors responsible for providing catering services to schools. The purpose of this tool is to quantify the carbon footprint (CF) and water footprint (WF) of the meals served in order to identify hotspot meals and ingredients, and suggest simple, yet transformative, reduction measures. A case study is used to test the tool, comparing the impacts of 34 school meal recipes. The tool utilises secondary data to calculate values of CF and WF for a school meal from cradle to plate. This includes three phases: (1) food production, (2) transport of each ingredient to a generic school kitchen in the UK, and (3) meal preparation. Considerations for waste along the supply chain are included. After testing the tool against a set of nutritionally compliant meals, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the influence of the origin and seasonality of the ingredients, transport mode and cooking appliances used on the final results. The results of the case study show the predominance of the production phase in the overall carbon footprint and that there is a strong tendency towards lower impacts for meat-free meals; however, this is not always the case, for instance some of the chicken-based meals present lower impacts than vegetarian meals rich in dairy ingredients. The sensitivity analysis performed on one of the meals shows that the highest value of CF is obtained when the horticultural products are out of season and produced in heated greenhouses, whilst the highest value of WF is obtained when the origin of the ingredients is unknown and the global average values of WF are used in the analysis; this defines a crucial data need if accurate analyses are to be uniformly possible. This article focuses on the potential offered by the public food sector for a transformative reduction in the environmental impact of urban food consumption. The results presented prove that careful menu planning and procurement choices can considerably reduce the overall environmental impact of the service provided without compromising quality or variety. This research thus supports those responsible for making these decisions via a user-friendly tool based on robust scientific evidence.
Article 2 Reads 9 Citations Improving city-scale measures of livable sustainability: A study of urban measurement and assessment through application... Joanne M. Leach, Susan E. Lee, Dexter V.L. Hunt, Chris D.F. ... Published: 01 November 2017
Cities, doi: 10.1016/j.cities.2017.06.016
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Article 6 Reads 1 Citation Dataset of the livability performance of the city of Birmingham, UK, as measured by its citizen wellbeing, resource secu... Joanne M. Leach, Susan E. Lee, Christopher T. Boyko, Claire ... Published: 13 October 2017
Data in Brief, doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.10.004
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This data article presents the UK City LIFE1 data set for the city of Birmingham, UK. UK City LIFE1 is a new, comprehensive and holistic method for measuring the livable sustainability performance of UK cities. The Birmingham data set comprises 346 indicators structured simultaneously (1) within a four-tier, outcome-based framework in order to aid in their interpretation (e.g., promote healthy living and healthy long lives, minimize energy use, uncouple economic vitality from CO2 emissions) and (2) thematically in order to complement government and disciplinary siloes (e.g., health, energy, economy, climate change). Birmingham data for the indicators are presented within an Excel spreadsheet with their type, units, geographic area, year, source, link to secondary data files, data collection method, data availability and any relevant calculations and notes. This paper provides a detailed description of UK city LIFE1 in order to enable comparable data sets to be produced for other UK cities. The Birmingham data set is made publically available at http://epapers.bham.ac.uk/3040/ to facilitate this and to enable further analyses. The UK City LIFE1 Birmingham data set has been used to understand what is known and what is not known about the livable sustainability performance of the city and to inform how Birmingham City Council can take action now to improve its understanding and its performance into the future (see “Improving city-scale measures of livable sustainability: A study of urban measurement and assessment through application to the city of Birmingham, UK” Leach et al. [2]).
Article 1 Read 2 Citations How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities Christopher Thomas Boyko, Stephen J. Clune, Rachel F. D. Coo... Published: 29 April 2017
Sustainability, doi: 10.3390/su9050701
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Recently, much of the literature on sharing in cities has focused on the sharing economy, in which people use online platforms to share underutilized assets in the marketplace. This view of sharing is too narrow for cities, as it neglects the myriad of ways, reasons, and scales in which citizens share in urban environments. Research presented here by the Liveable Cities team in the form of participant workshops in Lancaster and Birmingham, UK, suggests that a broader approach to understanding sharing in cities is essential. The research also highlighted tools and methods that may be used to help to identify sharing in communities. The paper ends with advice to city stakeholders, such as policymakers, urban planners, and urban designers, who are considering how to enhance sustainability in cities through sharing.
Article 7 Reads 3 Citations A comparison of energy systems in Birmingham, UK, with Masdar City, an embryonic city in Abu Dhabi Emirate Susan E. Lee, Peter Braithwaite, Joanne M. Leach, Chris D.F.... Published: 01 November 2016
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.07.019
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Energy is a vital resource in modern life. With increasingly limited availability of traditional energy resources, e.g., oil, coal and nuclear, together with environmental concerns, there is raised awareness that energy needs to be both used more efficiently and generated in line with thinking on sustainability. Ready access to ‘clean’ energy is essential if we wish to maintain our current way of life without compromising our wellbeing or the carrying capacity of the planet. This paper aims to analyse the differences and similarities in energy supply and demand between two very different cities. Masdar City, founded in 2008, is a dynamic new Middle-Eastern city being built in a desert environment. Its aim is to be the most sustainable city in the world and offers an exciting opportunity to provide unique insights into the application of different innovative technologies as ‘new-build’ within an urban environment. Birmingham is a well-established post-industrial city that has evolved over fourteen hundred years. It was one of the fastest growing cities in 19th century England (Popp and Wilson, 2009) [1]. To do this a material flow analysis approach has been adopted to provide a framework for the study. The energy-related opportunities and mutual benefits that each city can gain from the experiences of the other are explored and five emergent issues are identified: innovation and experimentation, lock-in, balance, resilience and governance. This work shows how a greater understanding of common issues can lead to more sustainable, resilient and robust cities, able to face the challenges of the next 50 years.
Article 0 Reads 6 Citations Advancing City Sustainability via Its Systems of Flows: The Urban Metabolism of Birmingham and Its Hinterland Susan E. Lee, Andrew Quinn, Chris D.F. Rogers Published: 01 March 2016
Sustainability, doi: 10.3390/su8030220
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Cities are dependent on their hinterlands for their function and survival. They provide resources such as people, materials, water, food and energy, as well as areas for waste disposal. Over the last 50 years, commerce and trade has become increasingly global with resources sourced from further afield often due to cheap labour costs, better transportation and a plentiful supply of energy and raw materials. However, the use and transportation of resources is becoming increasingly unsustainable as the global population increases, raw materials become increasing scarce, and energy costs rise. This paper builds on research undertaken in the Liveable Cities Programme on the resource flows of Birmingham, UK. It investigates how people, material, and food flows interact within regional, national, and international hinterlands through road and rail transportation and assesses their sustainability across all three pillars (economic, social, and environmental). The type and weight of goods is highlighted together with their costs and energy used. For a city to move with greatest effect towards sustainability it needs to: (i) source as much as it can locally, to minimise transportation and energy costs; (ii) adopt such principles as the “circular economy”; and (iii) provide clean and efficient means to move people, especially public transportation.
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