To improve understanding of DNA hydroxymethylation (5hmC) and methylation (5mC) in the development of schizophrenia, this study examined global 5hmC and 5mC levels in peripheral blood DNA of 264 patients with schizophrenia and 221 controls and observed increased 5mC levels in the patients and increased 5hmC levels in male patients but decreased levels in female patients as compared with the controls. The 5mC level displayed a gender-dependent positive correlation with age and the 5hmC level displayed a correlation with age positively in controls but negatively in patients, and their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remains to be elucidated.
Decentralization and Polycentricity: Spatial Changes of Employment in Beijing Metropolitan Area, ChinaPublished: 24 October 2017 by MDPI in Sustainability
Decentralization and polycentric spatial structure strategies are important ways to alleviate urban disease in China. However, whether the urban spatial structure is meeting expectations is still unknown. Taking the Beijing Metropolitan Area as a case, the author adopted a non-parametric method to identify the subcenters, then an employment density model was used to analyze the spatial changes of employment and the employment centers’ impacts on the urban spatial structure. The results show that the Beijing Metropolitan Area was undergoing processes of employment decentralization, the monocentric structure was obvious throughout this time, but the polycentric model prevailed. The spatial structure of the Beijing Metropolitan Area was characterized as depicting “all centers aggregation” and the spatial structure of the central district of Beijing can be described as “subcenter agglomeration” between 2004 and 2013. The spatial structure became increasingly polycentric in the Beijing Metropolitan Area, but became more scattered in the central district.
Genetic and epigenetic regulation on the transcription of GABRB2 : Genotype-dependent hydroxymethylation and methylation...Published: 01 May 2017 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Psychiatric Research
To improve our understanding of the abnormalities and non-Mendelian inheritance characteristics of schizophrenia, this study examined DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) in the schizophrenia-associated GABRB2 gene encoding the type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptor β2 subunit. DNAs from the peripheral white blood cells of 279 schizophrenic patients and 256 controls from the Chinese Han population were examined to reveal that the GABRB2 promoter P1-5mC level which was correlated with olanzapine administration, P2-5mC/5hmC level, and Alu-5mC level which was correlated with administration of ziprasidone or oxcarbazepine, were increased in schizophrenic patients. Significant correlations of the promoter 5mC/5hmC levels with the genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed with SNPs rs72815526 (C/A) and rs3811997 (C/T). In schizophrenics, the heterozygous genotypes of rs72815526 (C/A) were correlated with increased 5hmC levels whereas the heterozygous genotypes of rs3811997 (C/T) were correlated with decreased 5mC levels. Moreover, the GABRB2 promoter with rs3811997(C/T) minor allele T or the methylation-disrupted type AG at -254 and -231 CCGG sites was observed to enhance the promoter activity in the luciferase reporter-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. An elevated GABRB2 mRNA transcriptional level in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells were accompanied by the decreased promoter 5hmC/5mC levels induced by 5-azacytidine or by increased histone H4 acetylation levels of the Alu-Yi6 region induced by valproic acid. These results reveal alterations in GABRB2 genotype-dependent methylation and hydroxymethylation in schizophrenia, which yielded transcriptional and translational alterations in the cultured cells, and help elucidate the genetic-epigenetic interactions influencing schizophrenia.
[Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter of GABAA receptor β2 subunit gene with schizophrenia].Published: 01 February 2015 in Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
To investigate the genetic association between schizophrenia and the polymorphism of GABA(A) receptor β2 subunit (GABRB2) gene.