Distribution of Articles published per year
(2002 - 2018)
(2002 - 2018)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Widespread loss of intermediate soil horizons in urban landscapes Published: 11 June 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1800305115
Soils support terrestrial ecosystem function and therefore are critical urban infrastructure for generating ecosystem services. Urbanization processes modify ecosystem function by changing the layers of soils identified as soil horizons. Soil horizons are integrative proxies for suites of soil properties and as such can be used as an observable unit to track modifications within soil profiles. Here, in an analysis of 11 cities representing 10 of the 12 soil orders, we show that urban soils have ∼50% fewer soil horizons than preurban soils. Specifically, B horizons were much less common in urban soils and were replaced by a deepening of A horizons and a shallowing of C horizons. This shift is likely due to two processes: (i) local management, i.e., soil removal, mixing, and fill additions, and (ii) soil development timelines, i.e., urbanized soils are young and have had short time periods for soil horizon development since urbanization (decades to centuries) relative to soil formation before urbanization (centuries to millennia). Urban soils also deviated from the standard A-B-C horizon ordering at a much greater frequency than preurban soils. Overall, our finding of common shifts in urban soil profiles across soil orders and cities suggests that urban soils may function differently from their preurban antecedents. This work introduces a basis for improving our understanding of soil modifications by urbanization and its potential effects on ecosystem functioning and thereby has implications for ecosystem services derived from urban landscapes.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Managing Uncertainty in Runoff Estimation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator Published: 01 November 2017
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, doi: 10.1111/1752-1688.12599
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Stormwater Calculator (NSWC) simplifies the task of estimating runoff through a straightforward simulation process based on the EPA Stormwater Management Model. The NSWC accesses localized climate and soil hydrology data, and options to experiment with low-impact development (LID) features for parcels up to 5 ha in size. We discuss how the NSWC treats the urban hydrologic cycle and focus on the estimation uncertainty in soil hydrology and its impact on runoff simulation by comparing field-measured soil hydrologic data from 12 cities to corresponding NSWC estimates in three case studies. The default NSWC hydraulic conductivity is 10.1 mm/h, which underestimates conductivity measurements for New Orleans, Louisiana (95 ± 27 mm/h) and overestimates that for Omaha, Nebraska (3.0 ± 1.0 mm/h). Across all cities, the NSWC prediction, on average, underestimated hydraulic conductivity by 10.5 mm/h compared to corresponding measured values. In evaluating how LID interact with soil hydrology and runoff response, we found direct hydrologic interaction with pre-existing soil shows high sensitivity in runoff prediction, whereas LID isolated from soils show less impact. Simulations with LID on higher permeability soils indicate that nearly all of pre-LID runoff is treated; while features interacting with less-permeable soils treat only 50%. We highlight the NSWC as a screening-level tool for site runoff dynamics and its suitability in stormwater management.
Article 0 Reads 4 Citations A tale of two rain gardens: Barriers and bridges to adaptive management of urban stormwater in Cleveland, Ohio Published: 01 December 2016
Journal of Environmental Management, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.025
Highlights•Stormwater governance is difficult due to inherent complexity and high uncertainty.•Adaptive management can address ecological, economic and social stormwater issues.•Adaptive management can increase learning to improve stormwater governance.•Adaptive management to implement green infrastructure for stormwater management.•Governance networks can create space for green infrastructure in urban sewersheds. AbstractGreen infrastructure installations such as rain gardens and bioswales are increasingly regarded as viable tools to mitigate stormwater runoff at the parcel level. The use of adaptive management to implement and monitor green infrastructure projects as experimental attempts to manage stormwater has not been adequately explored as a way to optimize green infrastructure performance or increase social and political acceptance. Efforts to improve stormwater management through green infrastructure suffer from the complexity of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries, as well as interacting social and political forces that dictate the flow, consumption, conservation and disposal of urban wastewater flows. Within this urban milieu, adaptive management—rigorous experimentation applied as policy—can inform new wastewater management techniques such as the implementation of green infrastructure projects. In this article, we present a narrative of scientists and practitioners working together to apply an adaptive management approach to green infrastructure implementation for stormwater management in Cleveland, Ohio. In Cleveland, contextual legal requirements and environmental factors created an opportunity for government researchers, stormwater managers and community organizers to engage in the development of two distinct sets of rain gardens, each borne of unique social, economic and environmental processes. In this article we analyze social and political barriers to applying adaptive management as a framework for implementing green infrastructure experiments as policy. We conclude with a series of lessons learned and a reflection on the prospects for adaptive management to facilitate green infrastructure implementation for improved stormwater management.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Hydrology of Synthetic Turf Fields: Modeling Approach with Field Data Published: 01 May 2016
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, doi: 10.1061/(asce)ir.1943-4774.0000992
The hydrology of synthetic turf field (STF) drainage systems is poorly understood, which complicates their design. Field data are collected and used to parameterize computer models simulating the hydrology of a synthetic turf sport field. A model was employed to simulate infiltration through the synthetic turf, into the subsoil matrix, and free drainage into the perforated underdrains. The output from that model was routed using another model to simulate flow through the subsurface pipe drainage network to the system outfall. The drainage model was calibrated with actual hydraulic parameters obtained from field substrate material measurements, observed rainfall hyetographs, and measured discharge hydrographs for several storm events. Output from the calibrated STF drainage model closely matched the observed outlet hydrograph. Model output was then applied to investigate whether the classic rational formula was an appropriate tool for predicting peak flows from synthetic turf fields. It was determined that a single unique C factor in the rational framework could not adequately account for the more complex rainfall-runoff response of the synthetic turf drainage system. The implications of this new hydrologic model of STF performance are discussed.
Article 0 Reads 4 Citations Adaptive exchange of capitals in urban water resources management: an approach to sustainability? Published: 18 December 2014
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, doi: 10.1007/s10098-014-0886-5
With water availability increasingly restricted by deficiencies in quality and quantity, water resources management is a central issue in planning for sustainability in the Anthropocene. In this paper, we first offer a definition of sustainability based on the ease with which capitals (e.g., natural resource, social, cultural, financial, etc.) can be exchanged or substituted, and apply this to urban water resources management. We then examine barriers to the free exchange of capitals that can hinder the realization of sustainable water resources management and show how these barriers may be recognized and reduced through targeted data collection campaigns that are used to inform adaptation strategies. Next, we discuss the possibility of internalizing costs previously externalized to the environment (e.g., combined sewer overflows) through the cultivation of green infrastructure as a generator of ecosystem services, and discuss its pertinence to sustaining the contemporary urban water cycle. Finally, we contend that there will be opportunities to use monitoring data and interpret it in a way that is meaningful for governance and the benefits of gray and green infrastructures arranged in a hybrid fashion. This conclusion underscores the relationship between data that is brought together with social and governance capitals to unleash the potential widespread implementation of green infrastructure, and in support of a governance-level bridge between aging and new infrastructure.
Article 0 Reads 12 Citations Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study Published: 01 June 2014
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, doi: 10.1061/(asce)he.1943-5584.0000905
This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In this work, an ensemble of hypothetical imperviousness scenarios created for two small (<1 ha) watersheds were incorporated into the gridded surface subsurface hydrologic analysis (GSSHA) model, which was calibrated against 41 runoff events under natural conditions. Each event was resimulated for each imperviousness scenario. Variations in the model-projected changes in runoff were characterized and related to temporal rainfall dispersion, ASM, and two metrics: (1) proximity of imperviousness from the outlet, and (2) normalized number of downstream pervious elements. Key findings include the following: First, interscenario variations in the simulated runoff were relatively subdued on an event-mean basis but were much wider for individual events. For example, the coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 7.8% for runoff peak but was beyond 20% for certain events. Second, the rate of increase in simulated runoff peaks with elevated imperviousness tends to be lower for events with higher temporal rainfall dispersion and ASM, with one of the largest events exhibiting the slowest rate of increase. Third, both metrics were found to be negatively correlated with simulated runoff depth. These findings point to the possibility of refining the model projection by incorporating indicators of overall locations of impervious areas, rainfall dispersion, and soil moisture conditions.