O presente trabalho se dedica à regulação ambiental, como parte das políticas públicas, e em particular sobre o licenciamento ambiental. É ressaltado como o licenciamento tem sido conduzido pelos órgãos ambientais de maneira legalista e estática, sem ter apresentado evolução na incorporação e enfrentamento de novos problemas ambientais, cada vez mais complexos, apesar de avanços e resultados de melhoria ambiental em determinadas regiões do País. A percepção dos limites a que chegou o licenciamento originou diversas proposições de alterações legislativas, nem sempre preocupadas com a melhoria do seu desempenho e sua qualidade. Concluiu-se que o reexame é necessário e que deve relativizar a lógica burocrática de tomada de decisão, por um processo mais amplo de gestão que adote uma visão mais elaborada do comportamento das empresas e da participação de outros atores sociais. A metodologia se baseou numa pesquisa exploratória e qualitativa, a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica.
Paris Agreement and the Regions Adapt Initiave: The Role of Transnational Action in the Adoption and Implementation of C...Published: 01 January 2017 by Science Publishing Group in International Journal of Science, Technology and Society
The Paris Agreement reaffirms the important role of non-Party stakeholders in climate action. This article examines the outcomes of paradiplomatic action undertaken in the adoption and implementation of adaptation climate policies by subnational governments, introducing the Regions Adapt Initiative. The great differential in this project is that this was the first global initiative specifically focused on the theme adaptation. Over the past few decades, a number of initiatives have been implemented to mitigate climate change, but is necessary to go a bit further and take action to adapt to current and future conditions to ensure sustainable development. In some parts of the world the State has already demonstrated that they are not able to act effectively in this segment and this space has been occupied by subnational actors, who become important agents in international relations. While paradiplomacy influenced the adoption of the subnational climate change policies, the ensuing steps necessary for implementing this policy has a significant transnational engagement.
This article examines the local outcomes of São Paulo city’s engagement in transnational networks for climate protection. The participation of municipalities in such networks has been an important driver in fostering local initiatives to protect global climate. There have been accounts of many cases of mitigation measures implemented successfully at the local level, demonstrating significant carbon emissions reductions, thus helping national governments in their emissions reductions efforts. However, few studies have explored the linkages between transnational engagement, implementation of subnational climate action, and the actual national commitments in developing countries. This paper assesses the role of local engagement in transnational networks in the adoption and implementation of climate policies and legislation in the city of São Paulo, and its impact on the Brazilian government’s climate action, in the period between 2002 and 2014. São Paulo was an active member of ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection campaign and the C40 network during this period. The city was the first government to adopt legislation establishing reduction targets in 2009. However, while transnational action influenced the inception of the city’s climate change policy, it has had limited impact on the implementation of climate action beyond the municipal level. The role of transnational action, in this context, is yet to be determined.
There is a growing understanding that energy services play a crucial role in underpinning efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and in improving the lives of poor people. Brazil remains challenged in regard to a number of social issues, notably poverty reduction in isolated areas, where access to electricity is as poor as their population. In the Amazonian region, most people have no access to electricity, or else have only a precarious supply. Due to several economic and technical reasons, many cities have old, inefficient diesel generators. In such a scenario, CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) can be an instrument both to mitigate climate change and to promote sustainable development in these remote areas, thereby contributing to the achievement of the MDGs in Brazil. However, CDM implementation in Brazil is still restricted to a few types of projects (such as sugar cane bagasse cogeneration and landfill gas use), mostly proposed by big companies and hardly ever directed to the Amazon region. The main objectives of this article are to assess the potential of CDM as a possible tool to promote electricity access to the poor rural population in the Amazonian region, and to discuss the main reasons why it has not become a reality so far.