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Brad Bass published an article in September 2015.
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(1970 - 2015)
(1970 - 2015)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations The Value of the Online Research Co-Op Program Published: 15 September 2015
Journal of Student Science and Technology, doi: 10.13034/jsst.v8i2.83
CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 1 Read 0 Citations Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Understand the Complexity of the Linkages betwee Urbanization, Phosphorus Flows and Eutrop... Published: 31 October 2013
The 3rd World Sustainability Forum, doi: 10.3390/wsf3-e002
Phosphorus has been identified as the limiting nutrient and a primary cause of both nuisance and hazardous algal blooms in the North American Great Lakes and other water bodies. Urban areas contributed phosphorus from wastewater treatment plants and through stormwater runoff. Phosphours reduction was the key element of the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, between Canada and the United States in 1972. Although the measures that were enacted to reduce phosphorus were successful at reducing algal blooms, the problem reemerged in the last ten years. The largest hazardous algal bloom on Lake Erie occurred in 2011 and the first hazardous algal bloom on Lake Superior occurred in 2012. Nuisance algae have become a problem for infrastructure and recreation in the nearshore habitats of Lakes Erie and Ontario and to a lesser extent in tthe nearshore habitat of Lake Huron. Fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM) has been used to describe and analyze theflow of phosphorus through Lake Erie (2009), through agricultural production into Lake Erie (2010) and most recently, through urban areas into Lake Erie. FCM represents the flow and linkages with algal blooms and eutrophication as a network of nodes and linkages. Each node is a driver, a final receptor, or a stressor (a mid-point that both receives and contributes phosphorus to the system). FCM is a modelling strategy that has proven to be very effective for complex systems where data are not available to describe the many processes and flows, yet where an urgent need for action has been established to cope with a problem. FCM is a process where diverse groups of experts work in teams to map out the system. These maps also include weights for each linkage that describe the strength of the linkage, the confidence in the linkage, the scientific certainty, the spatial and temporal extent of the relationship and other relevant factors. The various team maps can then be aggregated into one map through different methods such as averaging the weights or genetic algorithms. A stakeholder workshop was convened in March, 2013 to create several different maps that illustrate the linkages between urbanization, phosphorus, algal blooms and eutrophication. The aggregate maps highlight the multiple drivers and the complexity of the flows through the stressors. Maps might typically contain 90 nodes and 140 linkages. The analysis of the maps provides insight as to the most important nodes in these networks, sggesting where measures to control the flow of phosphorus might have the largest impact. The aggregation and analysis of the maps was done with the Fuzzy Aggregated Linakges Within Environmental Bounds (FALWEB) software, which was developed for fuzzy cognitive maps.
Article 0 Reads 18 Citations Estimates of air pollution mitigation with green plants and green roofs using the UFORE model Published: 17 April 2008
Urban Ecosystems, doi: 10.1007/s11252-008-0054-y
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green roofs and green walls on air pollution in urban Toronto. The research looked at the synergistic effects on air pollution mitigation of different combinations of vegetation by manipulating quantities of trees, shrubs, green roofs and green walls in the study area. The effects of these manipulations were simulated with the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model developed by the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Regional Station. While UFORE contains several modules, Module—D quantifies the levels of air pollution for contaminants such as NO2, S02, CO, PM10 and ozone as well as hourly pollution removal rates and the economic value of pollutant removal. Six vegetation scenarios were developed within the Toronto study area to compare different subsets of vegetation and their effect on air contaminants. Results of the study indicate that grass on roofs (extensive green roofs) could augment the effect of trees and shrubs in air pollution mitigation, placing shrubs on a roof (intensive green roofs) would have a more significant impact. By extension, a 10–20% increase in the surface area for green roofs on downtown buildings would contribute significantly to the social, financial and environmental health of all citizens.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Roof–envelope ratio impact on green roof energy performance Published: 15 April 2008
Urban Ecosystems, doi: 10.1007/s11252-008-0053-z
This paper addresses the impact of roof-to-envelope ratio on overall energy savings of a green roof design over conventional roof designs. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the Environmental System Performance program simulator, developed at the University of Strathclyde. The modified design employed a model developed by Columbia University and the Goddard Institute of Space Science which models the evapotranspiritive effect of a green roof calculated using the Bowen ratio; that is, the ratio of sensible heat flux to the surrounding air to the latent heat flux resulting from evapourative energy losses. The resulting heat flux term is proportional to the external surface convection, but inversely proportional to the surface Bowen ratio, which is held constant and chosen to match experimental results obtained for a given roof design. The present study performed simulations for the month of July in a Toronto climate on square warehouse style one, two, and three-story buildings, with windows occupying 10% of the area of each wall. For the first set of simulations, the internal building load of each story was set to zero, and the roof–envelope ratio was increased by increasing the building width and length. For the final simulations, several roof–envelope ratios were chosen, and the internal load of each story was increased from 0 to 50,000 W. As the roof–envelope ratio increases, the cooling load of the upper floor for multi-story designs approaches the entire building cooling load. This indicates the importance of upper zone cooling in total building energy reductions. Furthermore, the total energy savings of a green-roofed building over a conventional roofed building were far more significant for single-story structures. A 250 × 250 m green-roof design with 50,000 W internal loading was found to have percentage energy savings of 73%, 29%, and 18%, for a one, two, and three-story design, respectively.
Article 0 Reads 108 Citations Green Roofs as Urban Ecosystems: Ecological Structures, Functions, and Services Published: 01 November 2007
BioScience, doi: 10.1641/B571005
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Complexity and Organized Behaviour within Environmental Bounds (COBWEB): An Agent-Based Approach to Simulating Ecologica... Published: 01 December 2005
Journal of Environmental Informatics, doi: 10.3808/jei.200500056