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Kirsty Carden     University Educator/Researcher 
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Kirsty Carden published an article in February 2019.
Top co-authors
Kees Van Leeuwen

69 shared publications

Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Stef Koop

2 shared publications

KWR, Water Cycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2008 - 2019)
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Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Evaluation of Water Governance Processes Required to Transition towards Water Sensitive Urban Design—An Indicator Assess... Boipelo Madonsela, Stef Koop, Kees Van Leeuwen, Kirsty Carde... Published: 07 February 2019
Water, doi: 10.3390/w11020292
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In the face of water related risks resulting from climate change and rapid urbanization, water resources in South African cities have increasingly come under pressure. Following the most recent drought period (2015–2018), local authorities such as the City of Cape Town are being tasked with restructuring policy to include climate change adaptation strategies to adapt more adequately and proactively to these new challenges. This paper describes an evaluation of the water governance processes required to implement Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Cape Town—with a specific focus on the barriers to, and opportunities for, those processes related to wastewater treatment, flood risk and the pressing issue of water scarcity. The City Blueprint Approach (CBA) was selected as the indicator assessment approach for this task. The CBA is a set of diagnostic tools comprising the Trends and Pressures Framework, the City Blueprint Framework and the Governance Capacity Framework. This was applied to Cape Town based on in-depth interviews and publicly available information. The analysis revealed that smart monitoring, community knowledge and experimentation with alternative water management technologies are important when considering uncertainties and complexities in the governance of urban water challenges. We conclude that there is potential for Cape Town to transition to a water sensitive city through learning from this experimentation and by implementing WSUD strategies that address water scarcity following the shifts in governance caused by the 2015–2018 drought.
Article 0 Reads 4 Citations Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa’s urban areas Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes, Kirsty Carden, Neil P. Armitage, Kevin ... Published: 24 January 2017
South African Journal of Science, doi: 10.17159/sajs.2017/20160153
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The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 – one of the worst in decades – has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH) is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations A water sensitive urban design framework for South Africa Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes, Kirsty Carden, Neil Armitage Published: 01 January 2017
Town and Regional Planning, doi: 10.18820/2415-0495/trp71i1.1
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Article 0 Reads 1 Citation The future of urban water management in South Africa: achieving water sensitivity L. N. Fisher-Jeffes, Kirsty Carden, N. P. Armitage Published: 04 June 2014
Water Supply, doi: 10.2166/ws.2014.060
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Article 0 Reads 3 Citations Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa – not just performance measurement Kirsty Carden, Np Armitage Published: 03 July 2013
Water SA, doi: 10.4314/wsa.v39i3.1
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Urban water management – and the impacts that rapid population growth, industrialisation and climate change are having on it – is gaining increasing attention worldwide. In South Africa (SA), cities are under pressure to respond to not only the challenges of water availability and quality, but also to economic transformation and social division. New solutions for improving the sustainability of cities need to be found, including the development of tools to guide decision-makers. Several benchmarking initiatives have been implemented in the SA water sector – mostly in terms of performance measurement of specific water services for regulatory purposes – but none provide an integrated analysis to enable a deeper understanding of sustainability. The research described in this paper was thus focused on using a systems approach to create an understanding of, and measure the potential for, sustainability in a South African urban water context. This has been achieved through the development and evaluation of a composite index, the Sustainability Index for Integrated Urban Water Management (SIUWM). The first step involved compiling a vision of sustainability for the SA water sector, and expanding it into a sustainability framework to help identify suitable indicators for the assessment process, as well as those which link with existing measurement initiatives. Key performance indicator results from the Department of Water Affairs’ Regulatory Performance Management System (RPMS) and the Blue Drop / Green Drop schemes were used as partial input to the SIUWM, and scores were computed for the nine member cities of the South African Cities Network (SACN). The SIUWM links the results from the regulatory systems with a broader sustainability assessment process to provide a more detailed analysis which can be used to establish goals and inform strategic processes to leverage support for improved water services. In this way, the connections that link the different aspects of urban water management can be used to generate a greater awareness of the underlying issues by key decision makers and thus guide appropriate action.Keywords: urban water management; sustainability index; performance measurement
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Development of guidance for sustainable irrigation use of greywater in gardens and small-scale agriculture in South Afri... N Rodda, Kirsty Carden, N Armitage, Hm Du Plessis Published: 14 December 2011
Water SA, doi: 10.4314/wsa.v37i5.10
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Greywater is untreated household effluent from baths, showers, kitchen and hand-wash basins and laundry (i.e. all non-toilet uses). More than half of indoor household water is normally used for these purposes and can potentially be intercepted by the householder for additional beneficial uses. Greywater use is practised on an informal basis to supplement irrigation water, either in urban gardens in middle- to upper-income suburbs or in food gardens in lower-income informal, periurban and rural areas. It holds the potential to contribute significantly to food security in poor settlements by providing a source of both irrigation water and nutrients for crop plants. However, there are presently no formal guidelines for the use of greywater in South Africa. This paper presents the rationale and framework of a guidance document for the sustainable use of greywater to irrigate gardens and small-scale agriculture in South Africa, developed under the auspices of the Water Research Commission. The 3 driving principles in developing this guidance were: protection of human health; protection of plants irrigated; and protection of soil and the environment. Risk-management scenarios were developed on the basis of the extent of greywater characterisation. Water-quality constituents for inclusion were selected from among those indicated as presenting a problem in previous studies. Guidance was provided for managing greywater quality, either by mitigation of greywater quality (by practices such as irrigation method, amelioration of soil, leaching of soil and planting of tolerant plant types) or by small-scale biological treatment of greywater. Guidance was also given regarding the volumes of greywaterwhich can be applied, together with factors to adjust these volumes for site-specific conditions.Keywords: greywater, irrigation, food security, sustainable agriculture, health, soil, plant growth