Developing countries are renowned for poor kitchen air quality, of which documentation on urban domestic kitchen air pollution related to African cooking styles is lacking. This work measured the concentrations of pollutants (CO2, CO, and PM2.5) present in 75 domestic kitchens before, during and after cooking methods of frying, boiling, and stewing. Kitchens utilizing kerosene (39) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (36) stoves randomly selected in an urban area of Southwestern Nigeria were investigated in this study. CO2, PM2.5, and CO concentrations were measured at the breathing zone level from the ground in the middle of the kitchens using relevant instruments. Mean concentrations of CO, CO2, and PM2.5 emitted into the LPG-stove kitchens were 29 ppm, 895 ppm, and 328 μg/m3 while those released from the kerosene-stove kitchens were 31 ppm, 897 ppm, and 345 μg/m3, respectively, during cooking. No significant variance was observed for the CO and CO2 released from the LPG-stove and kerosene-stove kitchens. In all the kitchens, frying (kerosene: CO2 = 1129 ppm, CO = 32.7 ppm, PM2.5 = 380 μg/m3; LPG: CO2 = 903 ppm, CO = 29.0 ppm, PM2.5 = 361 μg/m3) followed by stewing (kerosene: CO2 = 906 ppm, CO = 31.8 ppm, PM2.5 = 341 μg/m3; LPG: CO2 = 895 ppm, CO = 25.20 ppm, PM2.5 = 329 μg/m3) and then boiling (kerosene: CO2 = 897 ppm, CO = 30.4 ppm, PM2.5 = 339 μg/m3; LPG: CO2 = 883 ppm, CO = 23.2 ppm, PM2.5 = 310 μg/m3) were observed to produce the highest concentrations of pollutants. The PM2.5 concentrations in the kitchens significantly exceeded the limit recommended by WHO for indoor air quality. This work revealed the degradation of kitchen air quality via cooking stoves and styles.
Nigeria, a prominent country in Sub-Sahara Africa, is plagued with a protracted, erratic and low power supply. The purpose of this paper is to present an experimental investigation of the noise levels and pollutants’ (CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM2.5)) concentrations associated with the prevalent use of diesel-powered generators in the country. It is aimed to provide information on the level of gaseous, particulate and noise pollutants that are related to diesel-powered generators that could assist in policy formulation and create public awareness on the possible health risks. Diesel-fueled generators (105) with age and installed capacity ranging from 0.5 to 14 years and 10 to 500 kVA, respectively, were engaged in this work at Sango area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Standard measuring instruments were placed at 1 m from the diesel-powered generators to determine the noise levels and concentrations of CO, CO2 and PM2.5. Ranges of 72.6–115.6 dB, 19–198 ppm, 501–5,805 ppm and 221–492 µg/m3 for the noise level, CO, CO2 and PM2.5 concentrations, respectively, were obtained. Both the averages and ranges of the noise levels and pollutants’ concentrations were considerably higher than the recommended maximum limits. Thus, this study substantiated the pollution of ambient noise and air because of the operation of diesel-fueled generators. Furthermore, the health risks connected to the exposure to CO and PM2.5 as implied via the evaluation of the air quality index revealed very unhealthy and hazardous conditions, respectively. The measurement of the pollutants’ concentrations at the tips of the exhaust pipes of the diesel-powered generators was desirable but could not be achieved using manually logged devices. Nonetheless, adequate pollutants’ concentration data that satisfactorily represent the level of air pollution associated with diesel-fueled generators’ operations were obtained at around 1 m from the exhaust pipes. The study provided additional knowledge on the levels of noise and pollutants, and the public health risks connected to the operations of diesel-powered generators that will be beneficial to the public and policymakers. The results revealed a considerably high level of noise and air pollution, and the inherent environmental and public health problems connected to diesel-powered generators’ usage in Nigeria. This could serve as a viable tool for formulating environmental policy and providing the necessary societal awareness in this regard.
Inventory of kiln stacks emissions and health risk assessment: Case of a cement industry in Southwest NigeriaPublished: 05 March 2019 by Informa UK Limited in African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development
Cement production is a significant source of air pollution as both gaseous and particulate materials released are detrimental to the ecosystem. This work was carried out in a cement industry located in Southwest Nigeria. The emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulphur oxides (SOx) released from the cement kilns using fuel oil, natural gas (NG) and coal were garnered for a year. Thereafter, the estimated emission quantities of the pollutants were employed to obtain the emission inventory of the cement plant. Uncertainty analysis associated with the emissions was evaluated using Analytica® (4.6). Total amounts of pollutants emitted from the plant were 4.86 tonne (t) (NOx), 18.2 t (SOx), 2.270 Kt (CO2) and 1.17 t (CO). Uncertainty range of –149.38% to 149.38% was connected to all the pollutants. Results showed that the quantities of pollutants discharged from the cement industry were considerably higher than recommended. The evaluated air quality indices for CO, NOx, and SOx implied that the health risk on exposure to these gases was hazardous. This study revealed that NG and wastes are the best fuel for kiln firing to reduce the amounts of pollutants emitted into the microenvironment of the plant.
This study examined the influence of road traffic on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soil located at Sango-Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria were selected on the basis of their high and low concentration of vehicular traffic. Standard methods were used in digesting the soil samples (experimental and control) taken from the roadsides and in determining some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cr and Ag) presence using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The ranges of concentrations of the heavy metals found in the samples were 3.2 - 52.6, 23.9 - 232.5, 9.8 - 51.3, 16.4 - 89.3, 7.9 - 24.5, 59.4 - 573.5, 12.4 - 89.2 and 0.00 - 0.12 mg/kg for Cu, Zn, Pb, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cr and Ag, respectively. These values were observed to be relatively lower than that stipulated by European Union standard expect Ag that was not specified in the standard. This study revealed the relatively low level of roadside soil pollution due to vehicular movement on the roads in the area of study. Improved traffic flow, good maintenance of vehicles and stringent policy on emission control are amongst possible measures suggested to curb pollution of roadside soil due to road traffics.Keywords: traffics, emissions, pollution, roadside soil, heavy metals
Mitigating gas flare and emission footprints via the implementation of natural gas vehicles in NigeriaPublished: 01 December 2017 by Elsevier BV in Energy Policy
Inventories of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere through gas flaring are scarce; hence, the need for this study. Formulae reported by the Association of Petroleum Institute were used for estimating GHGs based on data (1965 to 2013) sourced from the national agency for information on gas production and flaring in Nigeria. Analytica® (4.5) was employed to estimate the uncertainty associated with the emission inventory using a Tier 2 method. In this study, 1.87 × 109 tons of CO2, 1.09 × 107 tons of CH4 and 37.41 tons of N2O were estimated to have been released into the environment through the flaring of 895.01 billion cubic metre (bcm) of gas (55.6% of the total gas produced) over the 49-year period. The homogeneity tests conducted on the CO2 data obtained from reputable institutions and those of this work showed that they are statistically unequal, though with a relatively strong positive correlation. Furthermore, the estimated CO2 in our study showed good agreement with those reported in previous studies and with the national GHG inventory. The uncertainty associated with GHGs estimation was −108.58% and 61.02%. Increased domestic utilization and export development of natural gas in the country are therefore proposed to reduce gas flaring and GHG emissions.
Gas flaring attendant impacts of criteria and particulate pollutants: A case of Niger Delta region of NigeriaPublished: 01 May 2017 by Elsevier BV in Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences
Optimization of coconut oil ethyl esters reaction variables and prediction model of its blends with diesel fuel for dens...Published: 24 June 2016 by Informa UK Limited in Biofuels
Recently, mixture of different oils at various proportions have been used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The primary aim is to improve fuel properties which are strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition of the individual oil that makes up the feedstock mix. The tropics are renowned for abundant oil-bearing crops of which palm kernel oil (PKO) from palm seed and groundnut oil (GNO) are prominent. This present paper investigated biodiesel production from hybrid oil (HO) of PKO (medium carbon chain and highly saturated oil) and GNO (long carbon chain and highly unsaturated oil) at 50/50 (v/v) blending. The principal fatty acids (FAs) in the HO are oleic (35.62%) and lauric acids (24.23%) with 47.80% of saturated FA and 52.26% of unsaturated FA contents. The chemical conversion of the oil to methyl ester (ME) gave 86.56% yield. Fuel properties of hybrid oil methyl ester (the HOME) were determined in accordance with standard test methods and were found to comply with both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The oxidative stability, cetane number and kinematic viscosity (KV) of HOME were observed to be improved when compared with those of GNO methyl ester from single parent oil, which could be accredited to the improved FA composition of the HO. The KV (3.69 mm2/s) of HOME obtained in this paper was remarkably low compared with those reported in literature for most biodiesels. This value suggests better flow, atomization, spray and combustion of this fuel. Conclusively, the binary blend of oils can be a viable option to improve the fuel properties of biodiesel feedstock coupled with reduced cost.
Fuel properties and rheological behavior of biodiesel from egusi (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed kernel oilPublished: 01 June 2014 by Elsevier BV in Fuel Processing Technology
Sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus “dulcis”) seeds as a potential feedstock for Nigerian Biodiesel Automotive ProjectPublished: 26 March 2014 by Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrograficas (IPABHi) in Ambiente e Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science
Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.