Rapid urbanization has made Kathmandu Valley one of the fastest growing metropolitan cities in South Asia, resulting in the need of additional facilities and infrastructure. The local energy crisis is one of the issues to be addressed. High dependence on imported fossil fuels and the sluggish development of hydropower for electricity generation despite abundant water resources are the major causes to be blamed for the energy crisis in Nepal. This study investigated possible strategies to be implemented in Kathmandu Valley to deal with the discrepancy between energy demand and supply. Several scenarios have been developed and analyzed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Comprehensive Scenario, which borrowed from all other developed scenarios, seems superior to the others. It reduces the energy demand by 32.36%, the GHG emission by 44.12%, and the social cost by 33.79%. This scenario implies that the Kathmandu Valley authority will support the installation of photovoltaic solar panels, the use of electric vehicles and electric cookers, and convert solid waste into energy. However, the EV Scenario (electric vehicles) is the one to be given priority in the implementation for its better performance than the other individual scenarios.
Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1) seismic hazard; (2) rapid land conversion and (3) domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE) for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV) and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV). The research reveals that (1) SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2) integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard.
Regional development in the eastern part of Indonesia has not yet sufficient to achieve the aspect of Millennium Development Goals. At the aftermath of sustainable development ratification, three major concepts of social, economic and environmental pillars should be equally translated into the planning agenda. Unfortunately, the methods to analyze the environmental condition have not yet developed in the Indonesian planning culture. This article aimed at the development of the environmental method analysis using the identification of hazard and evaluation of the millennium development goals in the case study area of East Nusa Tenggara. The development of the methods destined to empower the local potential sector. The methods applied the desk study, simple statistical methods and simple matrices to construct the list of priority of problems, and development programs. The result of the research revealed that in East Nusa Tenggara had been experiencing a very low social welfare distribution. Flooding and clean water services were at the same time need to be managed properly to support human development in the frontier region. By strengthening identification towards hazard, and achievement monitoring of MDGs, it is expected that the area soon experience better environmental, social and economic development strategy.
This research aims at identification of spatial plan zonation in rock fall prone areas. Research method applies hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis as an input for spatial modeling using Multi Criteria Evaluation (MCE). Research reveals that in Girimulyo is susceptible towards rock fall. In the last decades, there were 16 occurrences of rock fall that impacted to physical damages. Fortunately, such disaster did not cause any harm to human life. Therefore, research argue that physical vulnerability analysis can be analyzed, while social vulnerability cannot be analyzed further, since it had less data support. According to the research, there are more than 48 housing units located in hazard zone. Hence, local government should initiate structural mitigation to avoid further loss. Research also reveals that areas with high susceptibility will not directly consider as high risk zone, unless it has high vulnerability index. Example: areas along escarpment, where it has high susceptibility, but it has no element at risk in the area. Thereby, research tries to present zonation for prone hazard areas, using risk index. The result is quite representative, since possible areas to be developed is anywhere alongside road network. Indication of the area is produced from the multi criteria analysis. Multi criteria analysis is an essential method to combine spatial data and its attribute. Using such method requires more data input and expertise in justifying indicator to be selected.