Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile soil and ample water resources, as well as livestock and forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Energy is one of the key factors in the development of Sudan’s national economy. We present an overview of the energy situation in Sudan, with reference to its end uses and its regional distribution. We separate energy sources into two main types: conventional energy (biomass, petroleum products, and electricity) and non-conventional energy (solar power, wind energy, hydro-electric, etc.). Sudan has a relatively high abundance of sunshine and solar radiation, and has moderate biomass, hydro-electric and wind energy resources. Exploiting the available new and renewable energy sources to provide part of the local energy demand, as alternatives to conventional fossil energy, has become a major issue in Sudan’s strategic planning of future energy policies. Sudan presents an important case study with respect to renewable energy, as it has a long history of meeting its energy needs by use of renewable sources; Sudan’s portfolio is broad and diverse, due in part to the country’s wide range of climates and landscapes. Like many African frontrunners in the utilisation of renewable energy, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development, and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios in the new century emphasize the importance of exploiting the untapped potential of renewable resources. Sudan’s rural areas in particular, can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services will stimulate the development of new alternatives. We conclude that using renewable, environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale energy plants or collection devices, in particular for use in remote rural areas.
Heat exchanger technology and applications: ground source heat pump system for buildings heating and coolingPublished: 01 March 2018 by MedCrave Group, LLC in MOJ Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are a highly efficient renewable energy technology, which uses the earth, groundwater or surface water as a heat source when operating in heating mode or as a heat sink when operating in a cooling mode. It is receiving increasing interest because of its potential to decrease primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). The main concept of this technology is that it uses the lower temperature of the ground (approximately <32 °C), which remains relatively stable throughout the year, to provide space heating, cooling and domestic hot water inside the building area. The main goal of this study was to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. Recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings have emphasised the utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source and other renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study, however, was to examine the means of reducing energy consumption in buildings, identifying GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector, promoting the use of GSHPs applications as an optimum means of heating and cooling, and presenting typical applications and recent advances of the DX GSHPs. The study highlighted the potential energy saving that could be achieved through the use of ground energy sources. It also focused on the optimisation and improvement of the operation conditions of the heat cycle and performance of the DX GSHP. It is concluded that the direct expansion of the GSHP, combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors, is extendable to more comprehensive applications
Identifying, Developing, and moving Sustainable Communities through Application of Bioenergy for Energy or Materials: Fu...Published: 01 January 2017 by Biocore Group in International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering
FAKING AND COUNTERFEITING OF DRUGS: EVALUATION OF PHARMACY REGULATORY, PRIVATISATION, SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES AND ITS AL...Published: 01 January 2017 by Biocore Group in International Journal of Nanotechnology in Medicine & Engineering
Environmentally Friendly Systems: Earth Heat Pump System with Vertical Pipes for Heat Extraction for Domestic Heating an...Published: 30 October 2014 by Springer Nature in Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies: Generating Renewable Energy
Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are highly efficient renewable energy technology, which use the earth, groundwater or surface water as heat sources when operating in heating mode or as heat sink when operating in cooling mode. They are receiving an increasing interest because of their potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of the GHGs. The main concept of this technology is that it utilises the lower temperature of the ground, which approximately remains relatively stable throughout the year, to provide space heating, cooling and domestic hot water for buildings. The main goal of this study is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. Recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings has emphasised the utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source and other renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study, however, is to highlight the fact that use of the GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector in an attempt to promote using of the GSHPs for heating and cooling. The paper presents experimental and theoretical results of the DX GSHPs carried out at the Department of Architecture and Built Environment in the University of Nottingham. The study highlights the potential energy cost saving that could be achieved through the use of ground energy sources. It also focuses on the optimisation and improvement of the operation conditions of the heat cycle and performance of the DX GSHP. It is concluded that the direct expansion of the GSHP, combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage could play a major role reducing building energy needs.
People will have to rely upon mineral oil for primary energy and this will go on for a few more decades. Other conventional sources of energy may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural energy supplies. A major advantage of using the renewable energy sources is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources and with the advantage of local maintenance which can encourage local manufacturing that can give a boost to the building of small-scale rural based industries. This article gives a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development in Sudan. It reviews the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This article gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise interchangeability both of engine parts and of the engine application. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacturing of some of the energy systems. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas of many developing nations.
Development of integrated bioenergy devices for the improvement in the quality of life of poor peoplePublished: 01 January 2011 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH in Journal of Polymer Engineering
Sudan enjoys abundant solar, wind, hydro, and biomass resources. Like many tropical countries, Sudan has ample biomass resources that can be efficiently exploited in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Fuel-wood farming offers cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions for Sudan, with the added benefit of providing sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy in Sudan, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biomass technology in Sudan. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This article provides an overview of biomass energy activities and highlights future plans concerning optimum technical and economical utilization of biomass energy available in Sudan.
The use of renewable energy sources is a fundamental factor for a possible energy policy in the future. Taking into account the sustainable character of the majority of renewable energy technologies, they are able to preserve resources and to provide security, diversity of energy supply and services, virtually without environmental impact. This paper outlines possible energy savings and better performance achieved by different solar passive strategies (skylights, roof monitors and clerestory roof windows) and element arrangements across the roof in zones of cold to temperate climates. The aim of this work is to find possible design strategies, and to find solutions to provide thermal and luminous comfort in spaces of intermittent use and a poor aspect or orientation. In regions where heating is important during winter months, the use of top-light solar passive strategies for spaces without an equator-facing façade can efficiently reduce energy consumption for heating, lighting and ventilation. Passive solar systems for space heating and cooling, as well as passive cooling techniques when used in combination with conventional systems for heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting, can significantly contribute to the energy saving in the buildings sector, and the thermal behaviour of the dependent on the alternatives and interventions made on the building's shell. Exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can significantly contribute to energy saving. Promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels and will contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional resources with renewable sources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and coexist comfortably with existing urban, agricultural and tourist land uses. As concerns society, development of the renewable market sector. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasise the untapped potential of renewable resources. Energy efficiency brings health, productivity, safety, comfort and savings to homeowner, as well as local and global environmental benefits.
Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design building, which are more economical in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling, ventilation and hot water supply. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. However, exploitation of renewable energy in buildings and agricultural greenhouses can, also, significantly contribute towards reducing dependency on fossil fuels. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable applications and reinforcing the renewable energy market will contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional fuels with renewable energies that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases. The provision of good indoor environmental quality while achieving energy and cost-efficient operation of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) plants in buildings represents a multi-variant problem. The comfort of building occupants is dependent on many environmental parameters including air speed, temperature, relative humidity and quality in addition to lighting and noise. The overall objective is to provide a high level of building performance (BP), which can be defined as indoor environmental quality (IEQ), energy efficiency (EE) and cost efficiency (CE).
The imminent exhaustion of fossil energy resources and the increasing demand for energy were the motives for those reasonable in Sudan to put into practice an energy policy based on rational use of energy; and on exploitation of new, and renewable energy sources. After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of Sudan, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy has shown in many places. Therefore, the Sudanese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilisation in rural areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and as fuel is insufficient, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. Wind is a form of renewable energy, which is always in a non-steady state due to the wide temporal and spatial variations of wind velocity. A number of years worth of data concerning wind speed in Sudan have been compiled, evaluated and presented in this article. The need for the provision of new data stations in order to enable a complete and reliable assessment of the overall wind power potential of the country is identified and specific locations suggested. This paper presents the background and ideas of the development of the concept as well as the main results, and experience gained during ongoing project up to now. In Sudan, various designs of wind machines for water pumping have been developed and some designs are presently manufactured commercially. Results suggest that wind power would be more profitably used for local-and small-scale applications especially for remote rural areas. It is concluded that Sudan is blessed with abundant wind energy.
Sudan is a large country with varying standards of living, culture and climate. When this is superimposed on the multi-sectoral nature of water, coordination of activities in water resources planning, management and development becomes essential. The spirit of cooperation and close cooperation with countries sharing the same water resources should continue, preferably through an institutional cooperative framework for each shared basin. The guiding sprit should be equitable, legitimated, integrated, sustainable and environmentally sound utilisation of the common water resources, without significant harm from one country to another. Some of the issues and problems faced are referred in this article. Sudan has recently taken some major steps to organise the water sector. The article also shows some of the joint efforts to establish and advance cooperation with the Nile basin countries for integrated development of the shared watercourse. It concluded with a future policy look to address the emerging issues. A water policy is bound to be dynamic as it addressed issues with many variables. It is expected that, as time goes on, some new issues will surface while earlier issues will fade out. When this happens, another review of the water sector policy would be appropriate.
The harsh climate in Sudan presents unique challenges in meeting growing demands for power and water. The international demand of water increases compared to the available water resources, due to recent development water resources for different uses. In many areas especially in Red Sea areas, there is serious a shortage of potable water. These areas are enjoyed with a high intensity of solar energy. The move towards a de-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. This study reviews the energy-using technologies based on natural resources, which are available to and applicable in the farming industry. Among these are greenhouses, which are necessary for the growth of some plants (i.e., vegetables, flowers, etc.), in severe climates. Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption and decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves and pollution of the environment.
Ground-source or geothermal heat pumps are a highly efficient, renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling. This technology relies on the fact that, at depth, the Earth has a relatively constant temperature, warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. A geothermal heat pump can transfer heat stored in the Earth into a building during the winter, and transfer heat out of the building during the summer. Special geologic conditions, such as hot springs, are not needed for successful application of geothermal heat pumps. Ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) are receiving increasing interest because of their potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The technology is well established in North America and parts of Europe, but is at the demonstration stage in the UK. This article provides a detailed literature-based review of ground-source heat pump technology, concentrating on loops, ground systems, and looks more briefly at applications and costs and benefits. It concludes with the prospects for GSHP in the UK. It is concluded that, despite potential environmental problems, geothermal heat pumps pose little if any serious environmental risk when best management practices are applied during the installation, operation, and decommissioning of these systems.