Groundwater is a key element for people living in the Sub-Saharian region because it is the primary source of water, covering a crucial role in supplying water for multiple purposes. Water scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for economic development in these basins, as it is in many other basins located in developing countries with arid climates, lagging water infrastructure development, and rapidly increasing populations. Groundwater and climate change make a linked system. Climate change has a huge impact on groundwater, considering the fact that it is one of the main drivers which stresses the resilience of people living in these areas and makes groundwater resource highly sensitive to it. The goal of this paper is to give an integrated view of two focus themes, groundwater and climate change, inside two areas: the first is Dar es Salaam Coastal plain, in the eastern part of the United Republic of Tanzania; the second one is the area of Limpopo National Park, in the Mozambican part of the Limpopo River Basin.
Identifying Karst Aquifer Recharge Areas using Environmental Isotopes: A Case Study in Central ItalyPublished: 15 September 2018 by MDPI in Geosciences
Water resources management is one of the most important challenges worldwide because water represents a vital resource for sustaining life and the environment. With the aim of sustainable groundwater management, the identification of aquifer recharge areas is a useful tool for water resources protection. In a well-developed karst aquifer, environmental isotopes provide support for identifying aquifer recharge areas, residence time and interconnections between aquifer systems. This study deals with the use of environmental isotopes to identify the main recharge area of a karst aquifer in the Upper Valley of Aniene River (Central Italy). The analysis of 18O/16O and 2H/H values and their spatial distribution make it possible to trace back groundwater recharge areas based on average isotope elevations. The Inverse Hydrogeological Balance Method was used to validate spring recharge elevations obtained by the use of stable isotopes. Areas impacted by direct and rapid rainfall recharge into the study area were delineated, showing groundwater flowpaths from the boundaries to the core of the aquifer. The results of this study demonstrate the contribution that spatial and temporal isotope changes can provide to the identification of groundwater flowpaths in a karst basin, taking into account the hydrogeological setting.