Geoinformatics based approach for estimating the sediment yield of the mountainous watersheds in Kashmir Himalaya, IndiaPublished: 07 June 2017 by Informa UK Limited in Geocarto International
Sedimentation of water bodies is governed by the erosional processes occurring at the watershed level. In this research, a method is proposed for assessing the sediment yield of the mountainous watersheds surrounding the Wular lake in Kashmir Himalaya, using geoinformatics and geostatistics. This method is empirical and semi-quantitative in approach and takes into account the weightage-based influence of the parameters governing the watershed sediment yield. The results of this study reveal that out of the six surrounding watersheds of the Wular Lake, Madhumati watershed with the highest sediment yield index, SYI (39.78) drains maximum sediments into the Lake followed by Arin (39.27), Ferozpur (34.30), Wular II (32.53), Wular I (24.65) and Gundar (23.43) in the event of a same intensity storm. The proposed method is reasonably a better approach in the data-scarce Himalayan region and shall be a useful tool for watershed management in other regions with similar geographic setting.
Assessing the influence of stream flow and precipitation regimes on water quality of the major inflow stream of Wular La...Published: 14 December 2015 by Springer Nature in Arabian Journal of Geosciences
Wular Lake in the Kashmir Himalayan part of the Indian subcontinent is facing severe eutrophication due to the enhanced nutrient loads from its catchment. For holistic management of this lake, quantifying the nutrient loads from all of its inflow streams is compulsory for establishing a scientific basis for managing its highest loading watersheds. The present work has been carried out in the Sukhnag stream and is one of the major inflow streams of the Wular Lake. The analyses presented hereof are the initial results of the comprehensive assessment taking place in all the other inflow streams of this lake. Here, we present an analysis of the 12-month water quality data of this stream at five different locations, whereof we have estimated the concentration and export coefficients of the nutrients and major ions and their relation with the discharge and precipitation regimes. The results revealed statistically significant relationship of stream flow with ortho-phosphorus, total phosphorus, NO3-N, Ca2+, Na+, total suspended solid (TSS), and total dissolved solid (TDS) and insignificant relationship with NO2-N, NH4-N, organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen. Seasonal variation in nutrient load and export coefficients showed a linear relationship with high concentrations during spring and summer and low concentrations during autumn and winter. Further, the results showed that this stream during the observational period loaded 0.15 × 108 g of ortho-phosphorus, 0.53 × 108 g of total phosphorus, 0.96 × 108 g of NO3-N, 0.05 × 108 g of NO2-N, 0.14 × 108 g of NH4-N, 0.61 × 108 g of organic nitrogen, 1.75 × 108 g of total nitrogen, 22.9 × 108 g of Cl−, 60.4 × 108 g of Ca2+, 13.4 × 108 g of Mg2+, 20.7 × 108 g of Na+, 4.88 × 108 g of K+, 112.2 × 108 g of TSS, and 435.5 × 108 g of TDS into the Wular Lake. Seasonally, spring contributed the maximum average loads of about 62.18 % followed by summer (18.86 %) while as winter and autumn contributed about 9.61 and 9.35 %, respectively. This analysis on the Sukhnag stream is the first and key step toward a complete nutrient load analysis of all the inflow streams of the Wular Lake.
Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on the flood vulnerability of Jhelum basin in Kashmir Himalaya: rep...Published: 30 June 2015 by Springer Nature in Natural Hazards
Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on the flood vulnerability of Jhelum basin in Kashmir HimalayaPublished: 13 January 2015 by Springer Nature in Natural Hazards
In Himalayan region, it is very important to generate detailed terrain information for identifying the causes of natural hazards such as debris flows, debris floods, and flash floods, so that appropriate corrective measures are initiated for reducing the risk of the people and property to these disasters. Basic watershed morphometrics coupled with the land-cover and slope information are useful for assessing the hazard vulnerability. The terrain characteristics govern the surface hydrology and have profound influence on the incidence and magnitude of natural hazards, particularly floods. The present work is a comparative study of two watersheds of Jhelum basin (upper Indus basin in Kashmir). In this research, we make an integrated use of the Linear Imaging Self-Scanner satellite data and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer digital elevation model, supported with extensive field information, in a GIS environment for assessing the surface hydrological behavior of Lidder and Rembiara watersheds of the Jhelum basin. Knowledge-driven modelling approach has been used to evaluate the runoff potential of the watersheds to assess the flood vulnerability downstream. The results revealed that Lidder watershed exhibits lesser basin lag time compared to Rembiara watershed for a storm event. Further, due to higher population density in the Lidder downstream, this watershed is also socially more vulnerable to flooding than Rembiara. The methodology and results of this study shall help in formulating better flood mitigation strategies in this part of the Himalayan region, where the observation network of hydrometeorological and other land surface parameters is either missing or very scanty.
Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Hi...Published: 27 August 2014 by Springer Nature in Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.
Statistical Assessment of Water Quality Parameters for Pollution Source Identification in Sukhnag Stream: An Inflow Stre...Published: 01 January 2014 by Hindawi Limited in Journal of Ecosystems
The precursors of deterioration of immaculate Kashmir Himalaya water bodies are apparent. This study statistically analyzes the deteriorating water quality of the Sukhnag stream, one of the major inflow stream of Lake Wular. Statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), regression analysis, and cluster analysis, were applied to 26 water quality parameters. PCA identified a reduced number of mean 2 varifactors, indicating that 96% of temporal and spatial changes affect the water quality in this stream. First factor from factor analysis explained 66% of the total variance between velocity, total-P, NO3N, Ca2
West Lidder River, in the Northwest Greater-Himalayan mountain range, is the major source of irrigation and drinking water supplies for the Kashmir Valley with a population of seven million people. The major source of water for the whole Lidder River is snow and icemelt emanating from its two subcatchments East Lidder and West Lidder. Snowmelt significantly contributes to the evolution of drainage patterns in this area. Quantitative morphometry plays a vital role in routing the snowmelt and other hydrological processes. Morphometric analysis of the West Lidder River catchment was carried out using geospatial technique. The outcome revealed that the entire study area has uniform lithology and is structurally permeable. The high drainage density of all subwatersheds indicate more surface runoff. The morphometric analysis also indicates that the area is more prone to weathering due to very-coarse to coarse drainage texture. All the subwatersheds showed dendritic to subdendritic drainage pattern. An immense control of structure on the drainage in some subwatersheds is indicated by their high bifurcation ratios. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that the subwatersheds have elongated to circular shapes. From the integrated analysis of the morphometric parameters, important hydrologic behaviour of 17 subwatersheds could be inferred.
Gowhar Meraj added a new affiliation: Department of Ecology, Environment and Remote Sensing, Government of Jammu and Kashmir, Bemina Srinagar, J&K-190018
Gowhar Meraj added a new affiliation: Jammu and Kashmir Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Hub, Bemina Srinagar, J&K-190018