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Timeline of John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan

2019
Mar
08
Published new article






Methylglyoxal – An Emerging Biomarker for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis and its Detection Methods

Published: 08 March 2019 by Elsevier BV in Biosensors and Bioelectronics

doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.03.010

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one among the supreme metabolic issues observed in history since 3000 BC and has gained much interest recently due to the increasing number of diabetic cases every year. Glucose is considered as the most iconic biomarker for diabetes detection, and fluctuations in its levels are related to different stages of DM. However, methylglyoxal (MG) is evolving as a diabetes marker since it plays a significant role in biological processes Apart from DM, MG causes several metabolic irregularities like hypertension, neuropathy, nephropathy, oxidative stress. Besides, MG is a predominant precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which result in protein dysfunction, glycation of vascular tissues and aging. In this background, detection of MG has much importance, and the design of smart models is desirable. MG formation, detoxification, and its glycation effects have paved the way for the development of detection strategies which are described in detail here. The direct and indirect methods of MG measurement have been established in the past. At present, techniques like high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, capillary electrophoresis, electrochemical biosensors have been used to quantify MG present in the samples. Here, we have tried to correlate the function of MG and detection strategies to explain the major challenges posed towards implementation of easy, efficient and accurate standardization.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Dec
01
Published new article




Article

Growth of Eshelby twisted ZnO nanowires through nanoflakes & nanoflowers: A room temperature ammonia sensor

Published: 01 December 2018 by Elsevier BV in Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2018.09.003

Insight into the controlled growth features of nanowires has been in the prominent spotlight for engineering the material properties. Defect and dislocation induced nanowire growth has been emerging as a robust model by dwindling the conventional growth models. In this context, we have proposed a screw dislocated Eshelby twist origin in cationic assimilated ZnO nanowires synthesized via Successive Ionic Layer Absorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique. The growth of twisted nanowires occurred through a subsequent transformation from nanoflakes to nanoflowers. Presence of twist contours in various zone axis pattern provided strong validation of Eshelby origin in twisted nanowires. The preferential plane orientation of (0 0 0 2) confirmed the twisted growth along c-axis orientation. Presence of screw tail at the twisted end of nanowire confirmed the influence of Peach-Kohler force acted on the screw axis. Active vibrational modes and surface defect states of nanoflowers and nanowires were investigated and reported. Twisted ZnO nanowires showed maximum sensing response of 291 towards 100 ppm of ammonia at room temperature with the lowest detection limit of 5 ppm. The response and recovery times were found to be 39 and 17 s. Influence of grain alignment, grain orientation and potential barrier height on ammonia sensing signatures are reported.

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Nov
15
Published new article




Article

Chaos assisted variable bit steganography in transform domain

Published: 15 November 2018 by Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) in Electronics Letters

doi: 10.1049/el.2018.6426

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Nov
01
Published new article




Article

Electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of arsenite and arsenate using electroactive nanocomposite electr...

Published: 01 November 2018 by Elsevier BV in Chemical Engineering Journal

doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.06.097

Arsenic is a major water contaminant, threat to human health and country’s economy. Arsenic can occur in different oxidation states (-3, 0, +3 and +5) out of which arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+) are highly toxic. Identification and quantification of such toxicant has become a major challenge. Towards this, a highly electro catalytic ruthenium bipyridine - graphene oxide ([Ru(bpy)3]2+-GO) nanocomposite electrode is utilized. The nanocomposite modified screen printed electrode (SPE) shows an enhanced surface area and electron transfer due to the π-π stacking interactions of nanocomposite. Metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) property of the composite and its role in detecting arsenic species have been studied. Differential pulse voltammetric response of [Ru(bpy)3]2+-GO modified SPE exhibits three oxidation peaks at 0.38, 0.67 and 0.97 V. The challenge of thermodynamic limitation due to inner layer As(0) deposition is overcome. The nanocomposite modified electrode exhibits high catalytic activity towards the oxidation of As(III) and As(V) with the detection limits of 21 and 34 nM in the wide linear range of 0.08 - 15 µM. The developed sensing element is selective and exhibits good repeatability and reproducibility at a mean response of 32 µA with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.67 and 2.84% respectively. The selective nature of [Ru(bpy)3]2+-GO nanocomposite in quantifying arsenite and arsenate helps in water quality assessment.

6 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Nov
01
Published new article




Article

Role of Thermal Energy Sources in Chemical Solution Process to Synthesize V2O5 Nanostructures

Published: 01 November 2018 by American Scientific Publishers in Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

doi: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15560

Nanostructured metal oxide materials are becoming increasingly important for a variety of applications owing to their tunable size and shape dependent functional properties. Especially, the use of nanostructures in fabricating gas sensors has gained significant momentum due to their enhanced receptor and transduction functions during gas–solid sorption processes. In this background, the influence of heat transfer mechanisms namely conduction, convection and radiation from three different thermal sources used in solvothermal, hydrothermal and microwave methods was investigated in due course of formation of V2O5 nanostructures with the same starting precursor of 0.5 M of ammonium metavanadate. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of V2O5 nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Hall measurement system respectively. FESEM micrographs revealed the formation of V2O5 nanostructures with three different morphologies such as nanospheres, nanoflakes and nanoflower. Variation in the electrical resistance of the three nanostructures was found to be varied from 1.5×105 to 2.1×106 Ω due to different degrees of quantum confinement. Also, the room temperature selective gas sensing features of V2O5 nanostructures towards acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol and ammonia vapours are reported.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Oct
01
Published new article




Article

Networked medical data sharing on secure medium – A web publishing mode for DICOM viewer with three layer authentication

Published: 01 October 2018 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Biomedical Informatics

doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2018.08.010

Growing demand for e - healthcare across the globe has raised concerns towards the secure and authentication enhanced medical image sharing. One of the services offered by health informatics in hospitals include an user interface through the Local Area Network (LAN) for enabling storage and access of medical records. In this paper, a security enhanced DICOM image sharing over a LAN addressing confidentiality, integrity and authentication has been proposed. Initially, the AES encrypted patient history was combined along with the thumb impression and Quick Response (QR) code of patient ID as watermark. This watermark was encrypted employing Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), chaotic map and attractors with confusion-diffusion operations. Further, the encrypted watermark was embedded in the selected Region Of Non-Interest (RONI) pixels of DICOM image. Username & unique password credentials, Face identification and FPGA generated One Time Password (OTP) form the three layer authentication scheme for secure DICOM image access through the LAN. Web publishing medium of storing secured DICOM images in cloud has also been addressed in this work. To validate the proposed hybrid crypto-watermarking system, parameters such as key sensitivity, key space, correlation, entropy, histogram, cropping attack, Mean Square Error (MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Structural Similarity Index Metric (SSIM) were performed and the results obtained have proved the strength of the proposed algorithm against brute force, statistical and cropping attacks.

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Sep
07
Published new article




Article

YRBS coding with logistic map – a novel Sanskrit aphorism and chaos for image encryption

Published: 07 September 2018 by Springer Nature in Multimedia Tools and Applications

doi: 10.1007/s11042-018-6574-4

The role of image encryption in secure communication of confidential images is quite significant and novel schemes to encrypt images always have a demand in the scientific research community. DNA coding has found a noteworthy position in various earlier proposed image encryption schemes because of its simple but effective diffusion capabilities. Similar to the DNA coding, novel coding technique based on an aphorism present in the Sanskrit literature has been utilized in this image encryption work. The utility of Sanskrit sūtra ‘yamātārājabhānasalagam (YRBS)’ for performing scrambling, substitution and cyclic bit shifting promises the usage of this scheme as a part of various image encryption solutions. In this approach, YRBS coding has been employed along with simple one dimensional logistic map for encrypting 256 × 256 grayscale test images. The suggested scheme possesses a keyspace of 4.3769 × 1046 and average correlation figures of −0.00021, −0.00021, −0.00015 in horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions respectively when applied on ten test images. The encrypted pixels passed the NIST Test suite and this approach also offers a good resistance to chosen cipher text attack which was a challenge in DNA coding.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

A non-linear analytical model to estimate the response and recovery times of gaseous ammonia nanosensor

Published: 01 September 2018 by Elsevier BV in Measurement

doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2018.04.079

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

Nanostructured ZnO on cotton fabrics – A novel flexible gas sensor & UV filter

Published: 01 September 2018 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Cleaner Production

doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.110

The surge in skin cancer cases across the globe has forced the scientific community to develop solutions to protect humans against the ill effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Nowadays, functionalized cotton textiles are employed to protect humans against UV radiation. In this context, nanostructured ZnO modified cotton fabrics towards the enhancement of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) as well as to develop wearable gas sensors have been developed. The surface of carbon cellulosic fabric was modified by sol-gel and sputter seed layer-coated sol-gel techniques. ZnO grown fabrics were characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). Subsequently, UV-blocking and gas sensing properties of the modified textile samples were investigated. The seed layer initiated sol-gel modified cotton fabric showed a maximum UV protection factor (UPF) of 378. Also, room temperature gas-sensing performance of the functionalized cotton fabric towards volatile organic compounds such as acetaldehyde, ammonia and ethanol vapours was investigated.

0 Reads | 3 Citations
2018
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

Nanotechnology-based electrochemical detection strategies for hypertension markers

Published: 01 September 2018 by Elsevier BV in Biosensors and Bioelectronics

doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2018.05.034

Hypertension results due to dysfunction of different metabolic pathways leading to the increased risk of cerebral ischemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and inflammatory disorders. Hypertension has been considered a one of the major contributors to metabolic syndrome and is often referred to as a ‘silent killer’. Its incidence is on the rise across the globe owing to the drastic life style changes. The diagnosis of hypertension had been traditionally carried out through measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but in most cases, this form of diagnosis is too late and the disease has already caused organ damage. Therefore, early detection of hypertension by monitoring subtle changes in specific biochemical markers from body fluids can minimize the risk of organ damage. However, a single marker may be insufficient for accurate diagnosis of hypertension thereby necessitating quantification of multiple markers. Concerted efforts to identify key markers for hypertension and their quantification, especially using chemical and biosensors, are underway in different parts of the world. Constant evolution of the sensing elements and transduction strategies have contributed to significant improvements in the diagnosis field, especially in the context of sensitivity, response time and selectivity and this when applied to the detection of hypertension markers may prove beneficial. This review summarizes advances in the field of sensor technology towards the detection of biologically relevant entities, arrays and the next generation ‘lab-on-a-chip’ systems for hypertension.

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

ON Chip peripherals are ON for chaos – an image fused encryption

Published: 01 September 2018 by Elsevier BV in Microprocessors and Microsystems

doi: 10.1016/j.micpro.2018.06.011

Image encryption is being employed as an important security provider to facilitate the communication of confidential images over various confidential networks. In this work, a RGB image encryption procedure based on Chaotic and Cellular Automata (CA) attractors is proposed. Lorenz, Lü and Rule 42 of CA have been used as encryption mediums in red, green and blue planes respectively. Besides scrambling and XORing operations on secret image, a random synthetic image has also been used for diffusion on the three planes. Cyclone II FPGA EP2C35F672C6 has been utilized to generate the low correlation yielding random synthetic image aided by beat frequency detection using PLLs and diffused bit generation process. The proposed approach satisfies the various statistical parameters and offers tangible resistance to differential, occlusion and chosen plain text attacks on RGB images.

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Aug
31
Published new article




Article

Open hiding for truncating hackers - a block truncation and wavelet approach

Published: 31 August 2018 by Springer Nature in Multimedia Tools and Applications

doi: 10.1007/s11042-018-6549-5

Authentication of images with a focus on tamper proofing requires a critical attention. While most of the watermarking schemes look to assist authentication through data concealing in specific section, reversibility of the cover images remains a challenge to be addressed. Post tampering retrieval of the cover associated with the watermarking is the prime objective of this work. The key elements involved in this work are Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and Block Truncation Code (BTC). After application of IWT on the chosen cover image, the BTC generated from the HH sub band will be embedded in select regions of the LL sub band of the transformed image. BTC has been employed in this approach and tested for various pixel block sizes namely 2 × 2, 4 × 4 and 8 × 8 in the preferred HH sub band which carry the edge information. While the imperceptibility of recovered cover image was commendable through this reversible scheme, the suggested approach also withstands noticeably against a variety of image processing attacks.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Aug
01
Published new article




Article

Significance of Nanoparticles and the Role of Amino Acids in Structuring Them—A Review

Published: 01 August 2018 by American Scientific Publishers in Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

doi: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15388

Nanoparticles has occupied an eminent place in our tech-facilitated society. The processes involved in synthesizing nanoparticles are important not only to find their applications, but also to make them eco-friendly. Attempts are being made to replace the use of harmful surfactants/reagents by amino acids, in the due course of nanoparticle synthesis. Especially in synthesizing the multifunctional metal and metal oxide nanoparticles the use of amino acids as surfactant/as catalyst, helps to obtain required size and shape. Amino acids have the inherent property in directing and assembling the superstructures. They have the tendency to act as a capping agent and their presence during the synthesis processes alters the synthesized particles’ morphology. Review has been made to study the role of amino acids like histidine, lysine, arginine in structuring ZnO, FeO, Au and Ag nanoparticles. The change in their morphology that resulted due to the addition of amino acids has been compared. It is important to understand the role of amino acids in synthesizing the nanoparticles, and so it is more important to understand the internal energy variation of the same. To achieve this, the interaction between the bio (amino acids) and non-bio (metal and metal oxide) nanoparticles are to be discussed both experimentally and theoretically. At times the theoretical characterization, especially at low dimensions, help us to understand inter-particle interaction and intra-particle interaction by determining their chemical potential and Lennard-Jones potential. This review has been concluded with a model to characterize the precursor solution (amino acids and inorganic materials) by considering the Equation of State for liquids, which could also be extended to determine the structure factor of nanoparticles.

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Aug
01
Published new article




Article

Fluorine doped ZnO thin film as acetaldehyde sensor

Published: 01 August 2018 by IOP Publishing in Semiconductor Science and Technology

doi: 10.1088/1361-6641/aad2ab

Trace level detection of acetaldehyde vapour in real time environment is highly essential, since it causes various illnesses and disorders once it exceeds human permissible limits. Also, acetaldehyde is one of the predominant markers of fruits and vegetables spoilage levels. So, it is vital to develop relatively low cost, highly selective and room temperature acetaldehyde sensor. In this regard, we have fabricated room temperature acetaldehyde sensor using fluorine-doped ZnO nanostructured thin film. Further, the investigations were carried out to study the influence of fluorine doping on the structural, morphological, optical, electrical and room temperature vapour sensing characteristics of ZnO thin film. Structural analysis revealed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure for all the undoped and fluorine-doped ZnO samples. Average crystallite size and micro-strain were observed to be decreased and increased respectively with an increase in fluorine-dopant concentration. The film deposited with 4 wt.% concentration was found to be highly selective towards 100 ppm of acetaldehyde with maximum response of 4.8 at room temperature. Response and recovery times were observed to be 18 and 25 s respectively towards 100 ppm of acetaldehyde.

3 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jul
09
Published new article




Article

PANI–CdO Nanocomposite Thin Films as a Room Temperature Methanol Sensor

Published: 09 July 2018 by Springer Nature in Journal of Electronic Materials

doi: 10.1007/s11664-018-6485-1

The majority of industrial regions across the globe are polluted due to the release of toxic chemical wastes into the environment. Hence, real-time and continuous environmental monitoring is indispensable to regulate the polluting sources and to evade serious health issues. In this context, polyaniline (PANI) and cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles were synthesized, and subsequently, a PANI–CdO nanocomposite sensing element was fabricated using dip coating technique. Structural, morphological, optical, and room temperature sensing properties of the nanocomposite thin film were investigated using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectrophotometry, and an electrometer integrated with the custom-made gas testing chamber. PANI–CdO nanocomposite thin film sensor showed a selective response of 1580 towards 100 ppm of methanol with the response and recovery times of 19 s and 41 s, respectively.

2 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jul
01
Published new article




Article

An Electronic Nose for Royal Delicious Apple Quality Assessment – A Tri-layer Approach

Published: 01 July 2018 by Elsevier BV in Food Research International

doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.04.009

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jul
01
Published new article




Article

Nano ceria as xylene sensor – Role of cerium precursor

Published: 01 July 2018 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Alloys and Compounds

doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.04.248

Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique using three different precursors namely cerium chloride heptahydrate, cerium nitrate hexahydrate and cerium acetate hydrate. Structural, morphological, optical, electrical and sensing properties of the CeO2 thin films were examined. X-ray diffraction patterns of spray deposited CeO2 thin films confirmed the formation of polycrystalline cubic fluorite crystal structure. The surface morphologies of CeO2 films were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope. The optical band gap observed from luminescence spectra varied from 3.23 to 3.57 eV. Room temperature sensing characteristics of CeO2 thin films towards acetone, ethanol, xylene and toluene were observed. CeO2 thin film deposited using cerium acetate hydrate at 0.1 M concentration exhibited a better response towards xylene with fast response and recovery times of 224 and 13 s respectively at ambient temperature.

2 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Jun
01
Published new article




Article

Fabrication of Electrochemical Biosensor with ZnO-PVA Nanocomposite Interface for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

Published: 01 June 2018 by American Scientific Publishers in Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

doi: 10.1166/jnn.2018.15259

5 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jun
01
Published new article




Article

Encryption and watermark-treated medical image against hacking disease—An immune convention in spatial and frequency dom...

Published: 01 June 2018 by Elsevier BV in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine

doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.02.021

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is one among the significant formats used worldwide for the representation of medical images. Undoubtedly, medical-image security plays a crucial role in telemedicine applications. Merging encryption and watermarking in medical-image protection paves the way for enhancing the authentication and safer transmission over open channels. In this context, the present work on DICOM image encryption has employed a fuzzy chaotic map for encryption and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for watermarking. The proposed approach overcomes the limitation of the Arnold transform—one of the most utilised confusion mechanisms in image ciphering. Various metrics have substantiated the effectiveness of the proposed medical-image encryption algorithm.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jun
01
Published new article




Article

Non-mutually exclusive dual role of hexamethylenetetramine on the growth of ZnO nanostructures and their sensing footpri...

Published: 01 June 2018 by Elsevier BV in Materials Chemistry and Physics

doi: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.03.037

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on glass substrates using hydrothermal technique followed by a sputter deposited ZnO seed layer. The influence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) concentrations on the growth of ZnO nanostructures and their room temperature sensing performance were investigated. Further, the non-mutually exclusive dual role of HMTA on the growth of ZnO nanostructures were evaluated by morphological studies. Various morphologies such as nanoprisms, nanoparticles decorated nanoprisms and nanodisks were observed concerning various molar concentrations of zinc acetate and HMTA. Protonation of HMTA acted as a capping agent, which offered a unique impact on the anisotropic growth of ZnO along the c-axis direction. Nanoparticles decorated nanoprisms showed high selectivity towards acetaldehyde vapor amidst ethanol, ammonia, and acetone, which was well supported by bond dissociation energy. The presence of increased number of junction types, densities, and networked structure showed a prospect towards better sensing performance.

2 Reads | 2 Citations
2018
May
22
Published new article




Article

Analysis of Moisture Content in Beetroot using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and by Principal Component Analys...

Published: 22 May 2018 by Springer Nature in Scientific Reports

doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26243-5

The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614–4000 and 1465–1853 cm−1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm−1. In order to estimate the transmittance peak height (Tp) and area under the transmittance curve \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$({\int }_{{\bar{\nu }}_{i}}^{{\bar{\nu }}_{f}}{T}_{p}d\bar{\nu })$$\end{document}(∫ν¯iν¯fTpdν¯) over the spectral ranges of 2614–4000 and 1465–1853 cm−1, Gaussian curve fitting algorithm was performed on FTIR data. Principal component and nonlinear regression analyses were utilized for FTIR data analysis. Score plot over the ranges of 2614–4000 and 1465–1853 cm−1 allowed beetroot quality discrimination. Beetroot quality predictive models were developed by employing biphasic dose response function. Validation experiment results confirmed that the accuracy of the beetroot quality predictive model reached 97.5%. This research work proves that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis and beetroot quality predictive models could serve as an effective tool for discriminating moisture content in fresh, half and completely spoiled stages of beetroot samples and for providing status alerts.

0 Reads | 2 Citations
2018
May
12
Published new article




Article

Amperometric determination of As(III) and Cd(II) using a platinum electrode modified with acetylcholinesterase, rutheniu...

Published: 12 May 2018 by Springer Nature in Microchimica Acta

doi: 10.1007/s00604-018-2822-6

The authors describe an amperometric biosensor for the determination As(III) and Cd(II) based on the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholineesterase (AChE). A platinum electrode was modified with ruthenium(II)-tris(bipyridyl), graphene oxide and AChE and then showed redox peaks at 0.06 and 0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl in the presence of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATChCl). Amperometry unveiled a steady-state turnover rate with the release of thiocholine. In the presence of arsenic(III) and cadmium(II), AChE showed an inhibitive response at 0.214 and 0.233 V vs Ag/AgCl, respectively. The electrode exhibits a detection limit and linear range of 0.03 μM and 0.05–0.8 μM for As(III) and 0.07 μM and 0.02–0.7 μM for Cd(II), respectively. Type of inhibition and inhibition constants induced by As(III) and Cd(II) on the catalytic sites of AChE were determined from Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of As3+ and Cd2+ in river, tap and waste water, and the results proved that the method is sensitive and can be an alternative to chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

0 Reads | 3 Citations
2018
May
01
Published new article




Article

Chemically synthesized butein and butin: Optical, structure and electrochemical redox functionality at electrode interfa...

Published: 01 May 2018 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology

doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.04.001

Progress in the development of phytochemistry has delivered advancement in materials functionality for range of inter/trans-disciplinary application. Here, we investigated the structural functionality of chemically synthesized phytoconstitutent, chalcone (butein) and flavanone (butin). Photoactive and electroactive behavior of butein and butin were comprehensively studied using UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence and cyclic voltammetric techniques. Surface morphology of the butein and butin powders was characterized from scanning electron microscope at an operating voltage of 10 kV. Significant ultraviolet absorbance property are observed from butein and butin due to the distribution of π → π* and n → π* transitions. Photoluminescence emission spectra of the prepared materials are well resolved at visible region via keto-enol tautomerization and can be influenced by solvent pH. Cyclic voltammetric studies on the prepared materials enabled a direct electron-transfer reaction at gold-screen printed electrode, indicating the feasibility for analytical validation in herbal industries. Existence of multiple electroactive hydroxyl groups makes butein and butin a redox-functional species at electrode interface. Dispersion ability in aqueous and organic solvents makes butein and butin suitable for variety of photochemical applications. This phytochemical material offers new degrees of optical and redox functionality similar to inorganic nanostructures, in addition to inherent bioactivity, that may be advantageous for further biomedical function.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Apr
01
Published new article




Article

A non-enzymatic two step catalytic reduction of methylglyoxal by nanostructured V 2 O 5 modified electrode

Published: 01 April 2018 by Elsevier BV in Biosensors and Bioelectronics

doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2017.12.036

Methylglyoxal (MG) is a predominant precursor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs) due to its protein glycation reactions, which are the major causes of diabetic complications. MG is explored as a significant biomarker towards the prediction of diabetic complications. With this background, a non-enzymatic electrochemical biosensor has been developed to detect MG in human blood plasma samples. Microwave synthesized V2O5 nanoplates were used as interface material in the fabrication of modified gold (Au) working electrode for electrochemical MG biosensor. Orthorhombic crystal structured V2O5 with an oxidation state of +5 exhibited specific MG sensing performance. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry studies confirmed the electrocatalytic nature of V2O5 nanoplates modified Au electrode in the detection of MG. Non-enzymatic V2O5 modified Au electrode showed a sensitivity of 4.519 µA µM−1 with a linear range of 3 to 30 µM, limit of detection (LOD) of 0.24 µM, limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.80 µM and a response time less than 8 s towards MG. The lifetime and percentage recovery of the sensor was found to be 25 days (90%) and 102.5–108.7% respectively.

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Mar
01
Published new article




Article

Wavelet based spectral approach for solving surface coverage model in an electrochemical arsenic sensor - An operational...

Published: 01 March 2018 by Elsevier BV in Electrochimica Acta

doi: 10.1016/j.electacta.2018.01.187

Surface coverage parameter of an electrochemical sensor plays a vital role in enhancing the figure of merits of the sensor. Developing a theoretical model for the surface coverage will help to standardize the fabrication of working electrodes used in electrochemical sensors. In this background, a wavelet based spectral algorithm has been developed to model the surface coverage of an arsenic sensor. For the model, Michaelis-Menten constant of fluorine doped cadmium oxide (F-doped CdO) working electrode based arsenic sensor was used as the seed fount. Theoretical analysis for the estimation of surface coverage based on Michaelis-Menten constant with nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation is considered. In order to estimate the Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum current response, the measured current values are linearized with the help of Hanes-woolf plot. Using the Legendre wavelet spectral approach, the nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation is converted into a system of algebraic equations through operational matrix of derivatives. The surface coverage was determined using Legendre wavelets and this method can be determined the desired surface coverage for detecting arsenic in water of specific range.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Feb
28
Published new article




Article

Encryption and watermark-treated medical image against hacking disease-An immune convention in spatial and frequency dom...

Published: 28 February 2018

doi:

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is one among the significant formats used worldwide for the representation of medical images. Undoubtedly, medical-image security plays a crucial role in telemedicine applications. Merging encryption and watermarking in medical-image protection paves the way for enhancing the authentication and safer transmission over open channels. In this context, the present work on DICOM image encryption has employed a fuzzy chaotic map for encryption and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for watermarking. The proposed approach overcomes the limitation of the Arnold transform-one of the most utilised confusion mechanisms in image ciphering. Various metrics have substantiated the effectiveness of the proposed medical-image encryption algorithm.

3 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Feb
15
Published new article




Article

Encrypted Biography of Biomedical Image - a Pentalayer Cryptosystem on FPGA

Published: 15 February 2018 by Springer Nature in Journal of Signal Processing Systems

doi: 10.1007/s11265-018-1337-z

Secure transmission of medical information occupies a crucial role in the world of telemedicine applications. Reconfigurable hardware implementation offers several advantages over software implementation especially for real time security applications. This work aims to propose the novel implementation of a penta-layer medical image encryption using a reconfigurable Cyclone II Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) EP2C35F672C6. The first layer of encryption performs the row-wise and column-wise pixel permutations based on Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR). The second and third layers of encryption are based on maximal length sequence Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) 16-bit Cellular automata (CA) circuit and Galois Field (GF) product. In the fourth layer, a synthetic image is subsequently created by chaotic clock with Phase Lock Loop (PLLs) and gates to diffuse the image pixels. This creation of synthetic image for diffusion makes the developed cryptosystem totally hardware dependent. Last layer performs the diffusion using one dimensional logistic map. The synthesized result reveals that the reconfigurable implementation of proposed encryption process consumes comparatively lesser logic elements (2480) and low power consumption (278.65 mW) with an encryption time of 215.92 ms for encrypting a 256 × 256 DICOM medical image. Finally, various analyses such as Number of Pixel Change Rate (NPCR), Unified Average Change in Intensity (UACI), Entropy, Correlation, Uniform distribution and NIST statistical test suite have been performed to prove the robustness of the algorithm against various attacks.

10 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Feb
01
Published new article




Article

Lightweight chaotic image encryption algorithm for real-time embedded system: Implementation and analysis on 32-bit micr...

Published: 01 February 2018 by Elsevier BV in Microprocessors and Microsystems

doi: 10.1016/j.micpro.2017.10.013

4 Reads | 5 Citations
2018
Feb
01
Published new article




Article

Exploring hesperidin-copper complex as an enzyme mimic for monitoring macrophage activity

Published: 01 February 2018 by Springer Nature in Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

doi: 10.1007/s10008-018-3883-5

The present study evaluates the potential of hesperidin-copper complex for sensing superoxide anions, which is an important marker for the diagnosis of oxidative stress-based disorders. The metal ion center present in the complex scavenges the superoxide, which can be detected through electrochemical method. The hesperidin-copper complex was successfully synthesized employing a simple room temperature method and characterized. The cyclic voltammograms recorded using a working electrode modified with hesperidin-copper complex show a reduction peak at − 0.175 V, which can be attributed to the electron transfer involving the copper center present in the complex. The sensing study using amperometric techniques in the presence of different concentrations of superoxide anions reveals that hesperidin-copper complex-coated working electrode exhibits good sensitivity and linearity. The limit of detection (LOD) for this enzyme-less sensor is 0.547 μM and limit of quantification (LOQ) is 1.65 μM. The response time was less than 2 s. This sensor was also not affected by common interferents. The sensor performance was assessed in vitro for the quantification of reactive oxygen species in macrophages under stimulated and unstimulated conditions. The results demonstrate that this sensor can be employed for clinical applications involving diagnosis of inflammatory conditions.

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2018
Jan
30
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Article

Networked hardware assisted key image and chaotic attractors for secure RGB image communication

Published: 30 January 2018 by Springer Nature in Multimedia Tools and Applications

doi: 10.1007/s11042-017-5566-0

In multimedia communication, significance of the images for data representation is noteworthy. In this context, secure transmission of images over open channel has become a challenging task. Creation of different strategies in improving the secure image transmission always has a demand. The proposed work suggests an RGB image encryption with the confluence of attractors and hardware triggered key image in which confusion and diffusion were accomplished by Lorenz, Lü and Cellular Automata attractors. The uniqueness of proposed encryption scheme is a key image generation module through cascaded Ring Oscillator circuit which creates M × N key image for diffusion of pixels. Facilitating the authenticated networked access to key image generation hardware enables the secure server-client architecture for a variety of secure image transfer applications. The proposed approach is a hardware – software codesign which possesses a good keyspace, improved key sensitivity and satisfies the various statistical parameters thus offering substantial resistance to differential, occlusion and chosen plaintext attacks on RGB images.

4 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

V 2 O 5 nanofibers: Potential contestant for high performance xylene sensor

Published: 01 January 2018 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Alloys and Compounds

doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.10.056

4 Reads | 1 Citations
2018
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

A novel electrochemical sensor based on a nickel-metal organic framework for efficient electrocatalytic oxidation and ra...

Published: 01 January 2018 by Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) in New Journal of Chemistry

doi: 10.1039/c8nj02118j

A novel Pt/Ni-MOF electrode was fabricated for the determination of lactate in cow-milk for the first time.

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Heptazine based organic framework as a chemiresistive sensor for ammonia detection at room temperature

Published: 01 January 2018 by Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) in Journal of Materials Chemistry A

doi: 10.1039/c8ta06937a

We have demonstrated for the first time, a heptazine based microporous polymer sensor for the detection of ammonia at room temperature and under ambient conditions. .

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Dec
02
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Article

Fabrication of an electrochemical biosensor with ZnO nanoflakes interface for methylglyoxal quantification in food sampl...

Published: 02 December 2017 by Springer Nature in Food Science and Biotechnology

doi: 10.1007/s10068-017-0193-0

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10068-017-0193-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

7 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Dec
01
Published new article




Article

DNA Chaos Blend to Secure Medical Privacy

Published: 01 December 2017 by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience

doi: 10.1109/tnb.2017.2780881

In this technological era, it is highly essential to protect the digital medical data from the fraud and forgery as they are transmitted over the public channel. Also with the increased data traffic, it is hard to transmit the entire bulky medical data. New methods have come into the scene to reduce the traffic while maintaining the sufficient level of security. Partial encryption is one of the methods which selectively encrypt the bulky medical image. Meanwhile, if the same medical image is needed to be reused for another diagnosis, then it is recommended to protect the entire medical image. This paper proposes a hybrid encryption scheme based on Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) and chaotic maps which can be adaptable for both selective and full medical image encryption. The proposed algorithm uses multiple chaotic maps in single process to generate the highly random keys for encrypting the color Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image. The algorithm comprises three phases namely, permutation, encoding and diffusion. In all the phases, the selection of specific rule set depends on the key sequences produced from the combined chaotic system. Experimental results are carried out to validate the resistance of the developed algorithm towards statistical, differential and brute force attacks.

6 Reads | 3 Citations
2017
Dec
01
Published new article




Article

DNA Chaos Blend to Secure Medical Privacy.

Published: 01 December 2017

doi:

In this technological era, it is highly essential to protect the digital medical data from the fraud and forgery as they are transmitted over the public channel. Also with the increased data traffic, it is hard to transmit the entire bulky medical data. New methods have come into the scene to reduce the traffic while maintaining the sufficient level of security. Partial encryption is one of the methods which selectively encrypt the bulky medical image. Meanwhile, if the same medical image is needed to be reused for another diagnosis, then it is recommended to protect the entire medical image. This paper proposes a hybrid encryption scheme based on deoxyribo nucleic acid and chaotic maps, which can be adaptable for both selective and full medical image encryption. The proposed algorithm uses multiple chaotic maps in single process to generate the highly random keys for encrypting the color digital imaging and communications in medicine image. The algorithm comprises three phases, namely, permutation, encoding, and diffusion. In all the phases, the selection of specific rule set depends on the key sequences produced from the combined chaotic system. Experimental results are carried out to validate the resistance of the developed algorithm toward statistical, differential, and brute force attacks.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Nov
01
Published new article




Article

A framework for analysing E-Nose data based on fuzzy set multiple linear regression: Paddy quality assessment

Published: 01 November 2017 by Elsevier BV in Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2017.10.020

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2017
Oct
20
Published new article




Article

Enzyme-free monitoring of glucose utilization in stimulated macrophages using carbon nanotube-decorated electrochemical ...

Published: 20 October 2017 by Springer Nature in Applied Nanoscience

doi: 10.1007/s13204-017-0617-4

5 Reads | 1 Citations
2017
Oct
18
Published new article




Article

Monomer: Design of ZnO Nanostructures (Nanobush and Nanowire) and Their Room-Temperature Ethanol Vapor Sensing Signature...

Published: 18 October 2017 by American Chemical Society (ACS) in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b11561

Ethanol serves as a biomarker as well as a chemical reagent for several applications and has been predominantly used as an alternative fuel (E10 and E85). Development of sensors for the detection and monitoring of ethanol vapor at lower operating temperature has gathered momentum in the recent past. In this work, we reported the synthesis of self-assembled ZnO nanowires using electrospun technique without using any external surfactants or capping agents and their room temperature ethanol sensing properties. An inherent template namely monomer of the polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with two different molecular weights (14,000 and 1,40,000 g mol-1) was used along with the precursor zinc acetate dihydrate. The ZnO-PVA nanofibers has been tranformed to ZnO nanospheres and nanowires after calcination. Ratio of zinc precursor concentration to PVA polymer led to enhanced carrier concentration of the resultant ZnO nanowire in-turn enhanced sensing response towards ethanol vapor. The developed sensing elements have been systematically characterised to correlate their structural, morphological and electrical properties with the respective room temperature ethanol sensing characterisitics. Role of grain features and low activation energy of ZnO nanowires in coordination with the low dipole moment of ethanol resulted in the excellent response of 78 towards 100 ppm at room temperature with an ultra sensitive response and recovery times (9 and 12 s).

4 Reads | 4 Citations
2017
Oct
01
Published new article




Article

Simultaneous voltammetric determination of captan, carbosulfan, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin and pentachlorophenol i...

Published: 01 October 2017 by Elsevier BV in Measurement

doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.05.047

6 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

Ferricyanide/reduced graphene oxide as electron mediator for the electrochemical detection of methanol in canned citrus ...

Published: 01 September 2017 by Elsevier BV in Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical

doi: 10.1016/j.snb.2017.03.168

9 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Aug
16
Published new article




Article

Tamper Proofing Identification and Authenticated DICOM Image Transmission Using Wireless Channels and CR Network

Published: 16 August 2017 by Springer Nature in Wireless Personal Communications

doi: 10.1007/s11277-017-4795-x

Digital transferring of medical images in a fraction of second has become inevitable in this internet era. Hence, it is very much essential and need of the time to protect any personal information with utmost secrecy against unauthorized viewers by victimization cryptography. To facilitate the process of getting secure communication, the recent advances in wireless technology have reached its peak and paved way to use the licensed frequency bands suited for Cognitive Radio (CR). In this paper, initially sensing the frequency bands that are not in demand will be initially identified by the CR users, and then the essential encrypted biomedical information will be exchanged between data management systems in hospitals, doctors and patients in rural areas using the identified free spectrum holes. The sensitivity of the encryption algorithm was tested by passing the encrypted medical information over wireless channels like Additive White Gaussian Noise, Rayleigh and Rican channels. Bit error rate, number of pixel changing rate and unified average changing intensity, entropy, correlation values and Chi square tests were estimated to ascertain the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme offering good resistance to known plain text, color noise and chosen cipher text attacks.

5 Reads | 2 Citations
2017
Aug
01
Published new article




Article

A low power ammonia sensor node embedded with a light weight non-linear analytics

Published: 01 August 2017 by Elsevier BV in Sensors and Actuators A: Physical

doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2017.07.003

3 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Jul
01
Published new article




Article

Fabrication of electrochemical biosensor with vanadium pentoxide nano-interface for the detection of methylglyoxal in ri...

Published: 01 July 2017 by Elsevier BV in Analytical Biochemistry

doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2017.04.010

Increased consumption of raw and par-boiled rice results in the formation of methylglyoxal (MG) at higher concentration and leads to complications in diabetic patients. Highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor was developed using glutathione (GSH) as a co-factor with vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as a nano-interface for MG detection in rice samples. The Pt/V2O5/GSH/Chitosan bioelectrode displayed two well-defined redox peaks in its cyclic voltammograms for MG reduction. This occurred as two electron transfer process where MG gained two electrons from oxidized glutathione disulfide and formed hemithioacetal. The current density response of the fabricated bioelectrode was linear towards MG in the concentration range of 0.1-100 μM with the correlation coefficient of 0.99, sensitivity of 1130.86 μA cm(-2) μM(-1), limit of detection of 2 nM and response time of less than 18 s. The developed bioelectrode was used for the detection of MG in raw and par-boiled rice samples.

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Jun
23
Published new article






Developments in Electronic Noses for Quality and Safety Control

Published: 23 June 2017 by Wiley in Advances in Food Diagnostics

doi: 10.1002/9781119105916.ch3

In this era of globalization, consumers are aware of safety, quality and authenticity of the food products they purchase. From pre-historical times, consumers are paying great attention to the sensory characteristics like smell, taste and appearance of food items. Therefore, industries are in high burden to process the food items without affecting the quality. Moreover, food borne diseases occur from the various sources like intentional addition of some low quality ingredients to the food items, packaging and improper handling. In practice, conventional method of food quality analysis is done by organoleptic tests. Due to long processing time and lack of accessories, researchers have been looking for an alternative way to evaluate the food quality in a non-destructive manner. Fortunately, it is possible to evaluate the food quality using the recently developed non-destructive and sophisticated system namely Electronic Nose (eNose). This chapter presents the review on the recent developments in electronic nose technologies for food quality and safety control. Much attention has been given to the perishable food items like milk, meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, seafood and beverages. This chapter comprises of an introductory section to describe the need for food quality testing, basic components of electronic nose, its principle and instrumentation, types of sensors used and its various applications in food industries.

2 Reads | 0 Citations
2017
Jun
03
Published new article




Article

Non-enzymatic detection of glucose in fruits using TiO2–Mn3O4 hybrid nano interface

Published: 03 June 2017 by Springer Nature in Applied Nanoscience

doi: 10.1007/s13204-017-0571-1

Consumption of fruits leads to increase in glucose level in blood for diabetic patients, which in turn leads to peripheral, vascular, ocular complications and cardiac diseases. In this context, a non-enzymatic hybrid glucose biosensor was fabricated for the first time to detect glucose by immobilizing titanium oxide–manganese oxide (TiO2–Mn3O4) nanocomposite and chitosan membrane on to the surface of Pt working electrode (Pt/TiO2–Mn3O4/chitosan). TiO2–Mn3O4 nanocomposite catalyzed the oxidation of glucose to gluconolactone in the absence of glucose oxidase enzyme with high electron transfer rate, good biocompatibility and large surface coverage. Electrochemical measurements revealed the excellent sensing response of the developed biosensor towards glucose with a high sensitivity of 7.073 µA mM−1, linearity of 0.01–0.1 mM, low detection limit of 0.01 µM, reproducibility of 1.5% and stability of 98.8%. The electrochemical parameters estimated from the anodic process were subjected to linear regression models for the detection of unknown concentration of glucose in different fruit samples.

5 Reads | 1 Citations
2017
Jun
01
Published new article




Article

Chaos triggered image encryption - a reconfigurable security solution

Published: 01 June 2017 by Springer Nature in Multimedia Tools and Applications

doi: 10.1007/s11042-017-4811-x

Recently, diverse types of chaotic image encryption algorithms have been explored to meet the high demands in realizing secured real time image sharing applications. In this context, to achieve high sensitivity and superior key space, a multiple chaotic map based image encryption algorithm has been proposed. The proposed algorithm employs three-stage permutation and diffusion to withstand several attacks and the same is modelled in reconfigurable platform namely Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The comprehensive analysis is done with various parameters to exhibit the robustness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to withstand brute-force, differential and statistical attacks. The synthesized result demonstrates that the reconfigurable hardware architecture takes approximately 0.098 ms for encrypting an image of size 256 × 256. Further the resource utilization and timing analyzer results are reported.

2 Reads | 1 Citations
2017
May
20
Published new article




Article

Design and development of amperometric biosensor for the detection of lead and mercury ions in water matrix—a permeabili...

Published: 20 May 2017 by Springer Nature in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

doi: 10.1007/s00216-017-0376-9

Intake of water contaminated with lead (Pb(2+)) and mercury (Hg(2+)) ions leads to various toxic effects and health issues. In this context, an amperometric urease inhibition-based biosensor was developed to detect Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions in water matrix. The modified Pt/CeO2/urease electrode was fabricated by immobilizing CeO2 nanoparticles and urease using a semi-permeable adsorption layer of nafion. With urea as a substrate, urease catalytic activity was examined through cyclic voltammetry. Further, maximum amperometric inhibitive response of the modified Pt/CeO2/urease electrode was observed in the presence of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions due to the urease inhibition at specific potentials of -0.03 and 0 V, respectively. The developed sensor exhibited a detection limit of 0.019 ± 0.001 μM with a sensitivity of 89.2 × 10(-3) μA μM(-1) for Pb(2+) ions. A detection limit of 0.018 ± 0.003 with a sensitivity of 94.1 × 10(-3) μA μM(-1) was achieved in detecting Hg(2+) ions. The developed biosensor showed a fast response time (<1 s) with a linear range of 0.5-2.2 and 0.02-0.8 μM for Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions, respectively. The modified electrode offered a good stability for 20 days with a good repeatability and reproducibility. The developed sensor was used to detect Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions contaminating Cauvery river water and the observed results were in good co-ordination with atomic absorption spectroscopic data.

3 Reads | 3 Citations
2017
May
01
Published new article




Article

Hybrid image crypto system for secure image communication– A VLSI approach

Published: 01 May 2017 by Elsevier BV in Microprocessors and Microsystems

doi: 10.1016/j.micpro.2017.02.003

4 Reads | 2 Citations
2017
Apr
29
Published new article




Article

Transreceiving of encrypted medical image – a cognitive approach

Published: 29 April 2017 by Springer Nature in Multimedia Tools and Applications

doi: 10.1007/s11042-017-4741-7

5 Reads | 1 Citations
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