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Martha Bakker published an article in April 2018.
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(1970 - 2018)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Can the Land Use Master Plan Control Urban Expansion and Protect Farmland in China? A Case Study of Nanjing Published: 23 April 2018
Growth and Change, doi: 10.1111/grow.12240
Urbanization represents a challenge for plans aimed at controlling urban expansion and protecting farmland, such as the land use master plan (LUMP) instituted by the Chinese national government. This paper studies the effectiveness of such top–down plans under the authoritarian regime through the case study of Nanjing. In contrast to previous studies that compare actual and planned land‐use maps, we compare actual and planned land‐use patterns. We use land‐use change data to examine spatio‐temporal land‐use change between the years 1997 and 2014. The results indicate that the actual amount of urban‐rural built‐up land exceeded planned regulatory amount by 50,185 ha and the total farmland was 70,541 ha less than the target outlined in the LUMP (1997–2010). Based on these results, and the fact that the allowed total urban‐rural built‐up land had already been surpassed in 2014, it is to be expected that the target of farmland protection outlined in the LUMP (2006–2020) will be broken, signaling the ineffectiveness of the plan to control urban expansion and protect farmland. Plan‐led developments (e.g., new towns, development zones) and market forces (e.g., housing market, foreign direct investment) explain these developments. This study indicates that when cities embrace “growth‐led” development and entrepreneurial governance, the ability of plans to control urban expansion and protect farmland is severely limited.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gende... Published: 29 September 2016
PLOS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163376
Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff to higher ranks are guided by a set of explicit and transparent criteria, as opposed to earlier situations in which decisions were based on presumably more subjective impressions by superiors. We examined the effect of the introduction of a tenure track system at Wageningen University (The Netherlands) on male and female promotion rates. We found that chances on being promoted to higher levels were already fairly equal between men and women before the tenure track system was introduced, and improved–more for women than for men–after the introduction of the tenure track system. These results may partly be explained by affirmative actions, but also by the fact that legacy effects of historical discrimination have led to a more competitive female population of scientists. In spite of these outcomes, extrapolations of current promotion rates up to 2025 demonstrate that the equal or even higher female promotion rates do not lead to substantial improvement of the gender balance at higher levels (i.e., associate professor and higher). Since promotion rates are small compared to the total amount of staff, the current distribution of men and women will, especially at higher levels, exhibit a considerable degree of inertia—unless additional affirmative action is taken.
Article 1 Read 2 Citations Model explorations of ecological network performance under conditions of global change Published: 10 March 2015
Landscape Ecology, doi: 10.1007/s10980-015-0181-9
Ecological networks facilitate the mobility and vitality of species populations by providing a network of habitat patches that are embedded in a traversable landscape matrix. Climate change and land-use change pose threats to biodiversity, which can potentially be overcome by ecological networks. Yet, systematic assessments of ecological network performance under conditions of climate change and land-use change are rare. In this special issue we explore and evaluate approaches to assess the functionality of ecological networks under scenarios of global change. Hereby we distinguish three research fields: dynamics in the spatial configuration of networks; changes in the abiotic conditions within networks; and population viability and mobility of species within the networks. We present novel approaches for each of these themes, as well as approaches that aim to combine them within one modelling framework. Whilst the contributions featured all show promising developments towards the goal of ecological network performance under conditions of global change, we also see challenges for future research: the need to achieve (i) better integration between the three research fields; (ii) better empirical grounding of theoretical models; and (iii) better design of scientific models in order to assist policymaking.
Article 2 Reads 5 Citations The feasibility of implementing an ecological network in The Netherlands under conditions of global change Published: 06 January 2015
Landscape Ecology, doi: 10.1007/s10980-014-0145-5
Both global change and policy reform will affect the implementation of the National Ecological Network (NEN) in the Netherlands. Global change refers to a combination of changing groundwater tables arising from climate change and improved economic prospects for farming. Policy reform refers to the abolition of an intermediary organization that organizes land trades with the support of a national land bank.
Article 1 Read 6 Citations Land-use change arising from rural land exchange: an agent-based simulation model Published: 15 November 2014
Landscape Ecology, doi: 10.1007/s10980-014-0116-x
Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmers, nature organizations, and estate owners.
BOOK-CHAPTER 1 Read 1 Citation Simulating the Expansion of Large-Sized Farms in Rural Netherlands: A Land Exchange Model Published: 01 January 2014
Information Security Theory and Practice, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-54783-6_8
This paper introduces a data-driven agent-based simulation model of rural land exchange in the Netherlands. The model development process is part of an ongoing research program aiming at understanding the effects of climate change and socioeconomic drivers on agriculture land use and nature conservation. The first model version reported in this paper, is being developed for the Baakse Beek region in the Netherlands and is empirically grounded. The general framework described in this paper will be applied to another case study area in the Netherlands in the second phase of our research program and compare the projected land use patterns in the two case studies region.