Modelling support to citizen observatories for strategic Danube Delta planning: Sontea-Fortuna case studyPublished: 21 January 2019 by Informa UK Limited in Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Citizen participation in the environmental policy making process is a new concept still in development, however there is a growing interest in it. Present paper presents the newly funded H2020 EU project SCENT, which aims to use smart collaborative technologies, to enable citizens to become the 'eyes' of the authorities and policy makers and to monitor land-cover/use changes through everyday activities. In particular, SCENT will design and implement a toolbox of innovative technologies to improve current maps and make flooding prediction models more accurate. Such technologies include low-cost and portable sensors, an innovative crowd sourcing platform, serious gaming applications for large-scale image collection, machine learning for image and text classification, numerical models for mapping land-cover changes to quantifiable impact on flood risks and a harmonization platform, consolidating data and adding it to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
Highlights•Evaluation of XBeach numerical scheme in fluvial environments.•Benchmarking of the code to laboratory experimental results (flume and dam break).•Discussion of code performance in fluvial and transitional (estuarine) environments. AbstractThe dominant processes of sediment transport and morphological changes are different between rivers and coastal areas. In many situations rivers, estuaries and coasts need to be modelled together in an integrated way. This paper investigates the capability of a freely available, open source, coastal morphodynamic software (XBeach) to estimate sediment transport and morphological changes in fluvial environments. Four benchmark tests were designed to test code performance and included simple unidirectional flow cases, complex topography, fluvial flood flows (hydrographs) and dam break scenarios (fast transient, supercritical flow fields). The results were compared to laboratory experimental results or simulations results from industry standard software. Analysis suggested that the coastal morphodynamic code is able to simulate sediment transport and morphological changes in a fluvial environment, but there are limitations to what can be modelled and the accuracy to which they are modelled. General morphological trends are replicated reasonably well by the code however specific bed forms and rapid erosive responses are less well modelled. Suggestions are made for applicability of the code, code improvement and future work.
Educating for action: Aligning skills with policies for sustainable development in the Danube river basinPublished: 01 February 2016 by Elsevier BV in Science of The Total Environment
Highlights•The Danube requires a coherent educational strategy for integrated basin management;•Basin managers as sustainability change agents need technical and relational skills;•Harmonizing economic, educational, environmental and social strategies is essential;•Regional knowledge networks can be effectively supported by the EU Bologna Process;•Filling governance gaps across the region stimulates effective natural resource use. ABSTRACTSustainable river basin management depends on knowledge, skills and education. The DANCERS project set out to identify feasible options for achieving education for sustainable water management across the Danube river basin, and its integration with broader education and economic development. The study traced the historic, regulatory and educational landscape of water management in the basin, contrasting it with the complex political decision-making, data-heavy decision support, learning-centred collaboration, and information-based participation that are all inherent components of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). While there is a wide range of educational opportunities and mobility schemes available to individuals, there is no coherent network related to training in water management and sustainable development in the study region. Progress in addressing the multi-layered environmental challenges within the basin requires further aligning of economic, environmental and educational policies, advancing the EU Bologna Process across the region, and the development of dedicated training programmes that combine technical and relational skills.The DANCERS project identified key short and medium term needs for education and research to support progressive adoption of sustainable development, and the necessary dialogue across the public and private sectors to align policies. These include the development of new education networks for masters and PhD programmes, including joint programmes; improved access to technical training and life-long learning programmes for skills development; developing formalized and certified competency structures and associated accreditation of institutions where such skilled individuals work; and developing a co-ordinated research infrastructure and pan-basin programme for research for water management and sustainable development.
A review of applications of satellite SAR, optical, altimetry and DEM data for surface water modelling, mapping and para...Published: 01 September 2015 by Copernicus GmbH in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
Hydrological data collection requires deployment of physical infrastructure like rain gauges, water level gauges, as well as use of expensive equipment like echo sounders. Many countries around the world have recorded a decrease in deployment of physical infrastructure for hydrological measurements; developing countries especially have less of this infrastructure and, where it exists, it is poorly maintained. Satellite remote sensing can bridge this gap, and has been applied by hydrologists over the years, with the earliest applications in water body and flood mapping. With the availability of more optical satellites with relatively low temporal resolutions globally, satellite data are commonly used for mapping of water bodies, testing of inundation models, precipitation monitoring, and mapping of flood extent. Use of satellite data to estimate hydrological parameters continues to increase due to use of better sensors, improvement in knowledge of and utilization of satellite data, and expansion of research topics. A review of applications of satellite remote sensing in surface water modelling, mapping and parameter estimation is presented, and its limitations for surface water applications are also discussed.
Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flooding in the Lower Niger River Under Sea Level Rise ConditionsPublished: 22 August 2015 by Springer Nature in Springer Water
A review of applications of satellite SAR, optical, altimetry and DEM data for surface water modelling, mapping and para...Published: 08 May 2015 by Copernicus GmbH in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
Hydrological data collection requires deployment of physical infrastructure like rain gauges, water level gauges, as well as use of expensive equipment like echo sounders. Many countries around the world have recorded a decrease in deployment of physical infrastructure for hydrological measurements; developing countries especially have less of this infrastructure and where they exist, they are poorly maintained. Satellite remote sensing can bridge this gap, and has been applied by hydrologists over the years, with the earliest applications in water body and flood mapping. With the availability of more optical satellites with relatively low temporal resolutions globally, satellite data is commonly used for: mapping of water bodies, testing of inundation models, precipitation monitoring, and mapping of flood extent. Use of satellite data to estimate hydrological parameters continues to increase due to use of better sensors, improvement in knowledge of/and utilization of satellite data, and expansion of research topics. A review of applications of satellite remote sensing in surface water modelling, mapping and estimation is presented, and its limitations for surface water applications are also discussed.
An evaluation of vulnerability to sea level rise is undertaken for the Niger Delta based on 17 physical, social and human influence indicators of exposure, susceptibility and resilience. The assessment used geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to evaluate and analyse the indicators and the index of coastal vulnerability to floods, if sea level rise conditions are occurring. Each indicator value is based on data extracted from various sources, including remote sensing, measured historical data series and a literature search. Further on, indicators are ranked on a scale from 1 to 5 representing "very low" to "very high" vulnerability, based on their values. These ranks are used to determine a similar rank for the defined coastal vulnerability index (CVSLRI). Results indicate that 42.6% of the Niger Delta is highly vulnerable to sea level rise, such areas being characterised by low slopes, low topography, high mean wave heights, and unconfined aquifers. Moreover, the analysis of social and human influences on the environment indicate high vulnerability to sea level rise due to its ranking for type of aquifer, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, population growth, sediment supply and groundwater consumption. Such results may help decision makers during planning to take proper adaptive measures for reducing the Niger Delta's vulnerability, as well as increasing the resilience to potential future floods.
An evaluation of vulnerability to sea level rise is undertaken for the Niger delta based on 17 physical, social and human influence indicators of exposure, susceptibility and resilience. The assessment used GIS techniques to evaluate and analyse the indicators and the index of coastal vulnerability to floods, if sea level rise conditions are occurring. Each indicator value is based on data extracted from various sources including remote sensing, measured historical data series and literature search. Further indicators are ranked on a scale from 1 to 5 representing "very low" to "very high" vulnerability, based on their values. These ranks are used to determine a similar rank for the defined coastal vulnerability index (CVSLRI). Results indicate that 42.2% of the Niger delta is highly vulnerable to sea level rise; such areas been characterized by low slopes, low topography, high mean wave heights, and unconfined aquifers. Moreover the analysis of social and human influences on the environment indicate high vulnerability to sea level rise due to its ranking for type of aquifer, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, population growth, sediment supply and groundwater consumption. Such results may help decision makers during planning, to take proper adaptive measures for reducing Niger Delta's vulnerability, as well as increasing the resilience to potential future floods.
The climate change analysis shows an opposite trend at the sub-basin level, but overall, at the basin scale, the hydropower production is expected to increase because of changes in the hydrological variables.
Modeling the Inference between Upstream Inflow Hydrographs and Downstream Flooded Areas in a Reservoir Driven SystemPublished: 01 January 2014 by Elsevier BV in Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
Severe flooding events in China are a common cause of life losses. Many efforts have been carried out to understand flooding development and impact on the Yellow River. New approaches on modeling, specifically with the current development of the software modeling tool DFLOW-FM&beta;eta gives the opportunity to enhance the understanding of the behavior of the Yellow River during extreme events. The modeling approaches based on discretization of the modeled domain in square and rectangular grids have a great importance in the management of rivers but usually they present two drawbacks: the required accuracy of the meandering of wide long rivers is not well represented, and the reduced speed in computational runtime due to the need of using many grid cells. A new tool, developed by Deltares, based on a flexible mesh discretization of the domain, presents the advantage that the two drawbacks can be overcome. The approach has the advantage of combining different grids, in order to properly represent the river and compute the flooding extent accurately. The method is checked and demonstrated on the Yellow River case. Along with the test of the new proposed modeling method new characteristics of the spatial flooding process in the Yellow River emerges and are presented in the paper, showing the capabilities of the software application tool in modeling such a complex environment like the one studied.
This paper introduces some experiences with developing mobile phone demonstrator applications for water quality information management using the Google Android platform. The work presented is part of an EU research project named LENVIS (Localised ENVironmental and health Information Services for all). The applications are focused on delivery of water quality information related to outdoor bathing waters in two case study areas in the Netherlands. Both monitored and modelled water quality information is delivered via mobile phone applications that are integrated with web applications. The applications also have functionalities for collecting user feedback on bathing water quality from the field and integrating it with the information provided by the water management authorities. Initial test results of the applications with targeted user groups are also presented, which demonstrate the promising potential of this technology for water quality information management applications and they indicate potential use in other application areas.
Parametric and physically based modelling techniques for flood risk and vulnerability assessment: A comparisonPublished: 01 March 2013 by Elsevier BV in Environmental Modelling & Software
A GIS-based assessment of maximum potential hydropower production in La Plata basin under global changesPublished: 01 February 2013 by Elsevier BV in Renewable Energy
Comparison of sediment transport computations using hydrodynamic versus hydrologic models in the Simiyu River in Tanzani...Published: 01 January 2013 by Elsevier BV in Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C
The present paper investigated the extent of the flood propagation in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta under different projected flood hydrographs, considering the 2000 flood event (the 20-yr return period event, T. V. H. Le et al., 2007) as the basis for computation. The analysis herein was done to demonstrate the particular complexity of the flood dynamics, which was simulated by the 1-D modelling system ISIS used by the Mekong River Commission. The floods of the year 2050 are simulated using a projected sea level rise of +30 cm. The future flood hydrograph changes at Kratie, Cambodia, were also applied for the upstream boundary condition by using an adjusted regional climate model. Two future flood hydrographs were applied at the upstream part of the delta, the first one in a scenario of climate change without considering developments in the Mekong Basin,and the second one in a scenario of climate change taking into account future development of the delta. Analyses were done to identify the areas sensitive to floods, considering the uncertainty of the projection of both the upstream and downstream boundary conditions. In addition, due to the rice-dominated culture in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, possible impacts of floods on the rice-based farming systems were also analysed.
Universities and other higher education institutions involved in water-related engineering education are facing new challenges in offering lifelong learning services and online educational support. Both the curricula and the form of delivery are changing, as contemporary water problems require interdisciplinary approaches involving diverse and up to date expertise maintained via continuous professional development. Hydroinformatics education faces similar challenges in developing relevant curricula and finding appropriate combinations of course delivery to its target group. This article presents experiences from delivering two hydroinformatics courses in the fields of flood modelling for management (FMM) and decision support systems (DSS) in river basin management that in recent years have been delivered both online and in classroom settings. Comparisons between the two modes of delivery are provided, with the conclusion that online education in this field, although still faced with many challenges, has a promising potential for meeting future educational needs.
La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.
Climate change impact on flood hazard, vulnerability and risk of the Long Xuyen Quadrangle in the Mekong DeltaPublished: 01 March 2012 by Informa UK Limited in International Journal of River Basin Management
The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) has an important role in terms of food security and socio-economic development of the region; however, it is one of many areas of the world vulnerable to floods resulting from sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change. Therefore, management of flooding is a priority at national and regional levels in Vietnam. The Long Xuyen Quadrangle is the most important region in the VMD in terms of agriculture and economy. In the present work, flood hazard, vulnerability and risk were assessed and mapped to identify the priority areas in the Long Xuyen Quadrangle for flood mitigation. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate the flood event of 2000 when a flood of 20-year return period occurred and caused loss of human lives and extensive damage. The calibrated model was then used to simulate a possible flood event in 2050 due to SLR. The resulting flood depth of the simulation was used to prepare inundation maps and to analyse flood hazard in this region, as well. The flood vulnerability of the region was assessed using the coastal areas flood vulnerability index (FVI) method. The FVI was determined by district, and flood vulnerability maps were developed based on these data. The results indicate that the major part of the study area (35.4%) can be classified as being at high risk. It was also found that 32.7% of the area is under medium risk and only about 18.4% is under very low and low risk; 10.2% of the total area is not subjected to flood risk. We show that district level flood vulnerability maps are potentially useful for decision makers and the public in planning better measures for adaptation and mitigation of the negative impacts of flooding.
Distance Learning in Support of Water Resources Management: An Online Course on Decision Support Systems in River Basin ...Published: 23 December 2011 by Springer Nature in Water Resources Management
This paper presents the conceptualisation, design and implementation of an online course on the topic of Decision Support Systems in River Basin Management. The need for development of such a course has been recognised, as activities in the field of water resources planning and management increasingly depend on decision support methods such as simulation, optimisation and Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA). The online learning approach is particularly needed for continuous professional development and life-long learning of professionals active in this field, and especially for those coming from developing countries. The course was developed and implemented following the competence-based learning approach, supported by the EU FP 7 educational research project named TenCompetence, which also provided the learning platform for deploying and delivering the course. The paper presents the course design, implementation and evaluation by the course participants, with special focus on the course content and the developed learning resources. Participants’ evaluations show high appreciation for the course, but they also highlight areas for future improvements.
XBeach is an open source, freely available two dimensional code, developed to solve hydrodynamic and morphological processes in the coastal environment. In this paper the code is applied to ten different test cases specific to hydraulic problems encountered in the fluvial environment, with the purpose of proving the capability of XBeach in rivers. Results show that the performance of XBeach is acceptable, comparing well to other commercially available codes specifically developed for fluvial modelling. Some advantages and deficiencies of the codes are identified and recommendations for adaptation into the fluvial environment are made.
Model-Based Optimization of Downstream Impact during Filling of a New Reservoir: Case Study of Mandaya/Roseires Reservoi...Published: 01 October 2011 by Springer Nature in Water Resources Management
The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology based on coupled simulation-optimization approach for determining filling rules for the proposed Mandaya Reservoir in Ethiopia with minimum impact on hydropower generation downstream at Roseires Reservoir in Sudan, and ensuring power generation at Mandaya Reservoir in Ethiopia. The Multi-Objective Optimization (MOO) approach for reservoir optimization presented in this paper is a combination of simulation and optimization models, which can assist decision making in water resource planning and management (WRPM). The combined system of reservoirs is set in MIKE BASIN Simulation model, which is then used for simulation of a limited set of feasible filling rules of the Mandaya reservoir according to the current storage level, the inflow, and the time of the year. The same simulation model is then coupled with Multi-Objective optimization Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), which is adopted for determining optimial filling rules of the Mandaya Reservoir. The optimization puts focus on maximization of hydropower generation in both the Mandaya and the Roseires Reservoirs. The results demonstrate that optimal release- (and correspondingly filling-) rules for Mandaya Reservoir which maximize the hydropower generation in both Mandaya and Roseires reservoirs can be found. These rules are determined along the Pareto frontier obtained by the optimization algorithm, which can serve as a decision support tool for choosing the actual filling rule. The results also showed that the NSGA- II is an efficient and powerful tool that could assist decision makers for solving optimization problems in complex water resource systems.
Linking SWAT and SOBEK Using Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) for Sediment Transport Simulation in the Blue Nile River B...Published: 01 January 2011 by American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) in Transactions of the ASABE
An integrated flood modelling approach has been applied in a demonstrator of a flood management system, which was developed within the framework of a collaborative project between Romania and the Netherlands. The developed demonstrator system had two objectives: (a) operational water management under extreme conditions when actions have to be taken quickly; (b) off-line analysis and design of flood mitigation measures and alternatives. This article presents the applied approach and the achieved results for meeting the second objective. The pilot basin for the development of the system was the Timis–Bega river basin, in which the rivers Timis and Bega were considered jointly. The system is based on modelling the flood generation and routing processes by combined development and application of hydrological and hydrodynamic models. The modelling system HEC-HMS was used for the hydrological model, HEC-RAS for the one-dimensional hydrodynamic model and SOBEK for the two-dimensional (2D) model used for downstream flood analysis and design of mitigation measures and alternatives. The 2D model includes alternatives of deliberate dike breaching as part of the analysis of the system response. The analysis presented is concentrated on a specific flood event that occurred in April 2005, which occurred due to dike breaches along the Timis river. The combination of models is first used for reconstruction of inundation patterns resulting during this flood event. Subsequently the models were used for testing flood mitigation alternatives of deliberate (planned) breaches of flood protection dikes located in the downstream part of the Timis river at the same location where they had occurred during the 2005 flood event, but at different times with respect to the arrival of the flood hydrograph. The demonstrated approach can enable decision-makers to analyse the behaviour of the physical system and design possible preventive and/or mitigation measures.
Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the Blue Nile Basin using the Open Model Interface approachPublished: 01 January 2009 by RePEc
Rapid land use change due to intensive agricultural practices in the Ethiopian Highlands, results in increasing rates of soil erosion. This manifested in significant impacts downstream by reducing the storage capacity of reservoirs (e.g., Roseires, Sennar), and high desilting costs of irrigation canals. Therefore, this paper aims to provide a better understanding of the process at basin scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model soil erosion in the upper catchments of the Blue Nile over the Ethiopian Plateau. The SWAT output forms the input sediment load for SOBEK, a river morphology model. The two models integrated using the principles of the Open Model Interface (OpenMI) at the Ethiopia-Sudan border. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient was found to be 0.72 and 0.66 for results of SWAT daily sediment calibration and validation, respectively. The SOBEK results also show a good fit of the simulated river flows at Roseires and Sennar reservoirs, both for calibration and validation. The results of the integrated modeling system showed 86 million tonnes/year of sediment load from the Upper Blue Nile, while SOBEK computes on average 19 Mm3/year of sediment deposition in the Roseires Reservoir. The spatial variability of soil erosion computed with SWAT showed more erosion over the northeastern part of the Upper Blue Nile, followed by the northern part. The overall exercise indicates that the integrated modeling is a promising approach to understand soil erosion, sediment transport, and sediment deposition in the Blue Nile Basin. This will improve the understanding of the upstream-downstream interdependencies, for better land and water management at basin scale.
Decision Support System for flood forecasting and risk mitigation in the context of Romanian water sectorPublished: 01 October 2008 by Informa UK Limited in Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice