Energy Benefits Of Integrating Transportation Energy With A Net Zero Energy Solar Building Using Captured Waste Hydrogen...Published: 30 May 2018 by York University Libraries in Progress in Canadian Mechanical Engineering
Integration of transportation energy processes with a net zero energy community using captured waste hydrogen from elect...Published: 01 May 2016 by Elsevier BV in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Currently, hydrocarbon fuels are the main source of energy used in the transportation sector. However, these fuels are responsible for a relatively large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas emissions in many societies. In an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, alternative energy carriers such as hydrogen can be used to allow renewable energy resources to replace hydrocarbon fuels in the transportation sector. Electrochemical and other process industries frequently vent or flare hydrogen into the atmosphere. These electrochemical industries use sodium chlorate or chlor-alkali as a reactor for water purification and paper bleaching processes in which hydrogen is produced as a by-product. The vented or flared hydrogen can be captured for use in the transportation sector. When considering a net zero energy community, the transportation energy sector is often viewed as independent from the building sector of the community. In this paper, the integration of transportation energy with a net zero energy community utilizing captured waste hydrogen from chlor-alkali plants is examined. Methods integrating the energy use in transportation using hydrogen to meet the community energy demands and to achieve net zero energy balance in a community, are discussed.
Recovery of Sewer Waste Heat vs. Heat Pumps Using Borehole Geothermal Energy Storage for a Small Community Water Heating...Published: 13 November 2014 by MDPI AG in Proceedings of The 4th World Sustainability Forum
The consumption of hot water represents a significant portion of national energy consumption and contributes to concerns associated with global climate change. Utilizing heat recovered from the sewer, or the stored heat by utilizing heat pumps with a borehole geothermal energy storage system, are simple and effective ways of heating water for domestic purposes. Reclaiming heat from the waste warm water that is discharged to the sewer or stored heat in a borehole geothermal energy storage system can help reduce natural gas energy consumption as well as the associated energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, sewer waste heat recovery is compared with heat pumps using geothermal energy storage systems for a small community shared water heating system including commercial and institutional buildings. It is found that the sewer heat exchanger method is relatively economical as it has the smallest rate of return on investment for the selected community size. The findings also demonstrate a reduction occurs in natural gas consumption and fewer CO<sub>2</sub> gas emissions are emitted to the atmosphere. The results are intended to allow energy technology suppliers to work with communities while accounting appropriately for economic issues and CO<sub>2</sub> emissions associated with these energy technologies.
Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs:...Published: 30 April 2014 by MDPI in Sustainability
The potential benefits are examined of the “Power-to-Gas” (P2G) scheme to utilize excess wind power capacity by generating hydrogen (or potentially methane) for use in the natural gas distribution grid. A parametric analysis is used to determine the feasibility and size of systems producing hydrogen that would be injected into the natural gas grid. Specifically, wind farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada are considered. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, hydrogen production rate, capital and operating costs are used as performance measures. The model takes into account the potential production rate of hydrogen and the rate that it can be injected into the local gas grid. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16-MW capacity electrolysis system typically producing 4700 kg of hydrogen per day.
Integration of Wind Energy, Hydrogen and Natural Gas Pipeline Systems to Meet Community and Transportation Energy Needs:...Published: 31 October 2013 by MDPI AG in Proceedings of The 3rd World Sustainability Forum
This paper examines the options and benefits of hydrogen utilization in various segments of the wind energy market. A parametric analysis is done to determine the feasibility and optimal size of wind farms and an electrolysis system producing hydrogen to be distributed via several means including the natural gas pipeline grid. This paper examines the wind farms available in Southern Ontario, Canada. Infrastructure requirements, wind farm size, pipeline capacity, geographical dispersion, cost and hydrogen production rate are used as performance measures throughout the study. The results indicate the feasibility and economic factors of the size of wind farms, electrolysis systems and production rates of hydrogen that can utilized for a community vehicle fleet fuelling, industrial demand, natural gas augmentation and stored energy applications. “Straw man” systems are examined, centered on a wind farm size of 100 MW integrating a 16 MW capacity electrolysis system producing 4,700 kg of hydrogen per day.