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Tim Wade   Dr.  Senior Scientist or Principal Investigator 
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Tim Wade published an article in March 2018.
Top co-authors See all
David J. Weber

386 shared publications

Joan F. Hilton

384 shared publications

James Scott

378 shared publications

Mark Gold

361 shared publications

X. Chris Le

206 shared publications

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(1970 - 2018)
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Article 2 Reads 0 Citations Asymptomatic norovirus infection associated with swimming at a tropical beach: A prospective cohort study Timothy J. Wade, Swinburne A. J. Augustine, Shannon M. Griff... Published: 28 March 2018
PLOS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195056
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Swimming in fecally-contaminated waterbodies can result in gastrointestinal infections. However, the pathogenic microorganisms responsible are not well understood because sporadic cases of illness are not reported completely, exposure information is often not collected, and epidemiology studies rely on self-reported symptoms. Noroviruses are considered a likely cause because they are found in high densities in sewage, resistant to wastewater treatment and survive in the environment. In this study, saliva samples were collected from subjects at a beach in Puerto Rico and tested for evidence of norovirus-specific IgG responses as an indicator of incident norovirus infection. Saliva samples were collected from 1298 participants using an oral swab. Samples were collected on the day of the beach visit (S1); after 10–12 days (S2); and after three weeks (S3). Saliva was tested for IgG responses to GI.1 and GII.4 noroviruses using a microsphere based multiplex salivary immunoassay. Immunoconversion was defined as a four-fold increase in median fluorescence intensity (MFI) from S1 to S2 with the S3 sample at least three times above the S1 MFI. Thirty-four subjects (2.6%) immunoconverted to GI.1 or GII.4 norovirus. Swimmers who immersed their head in water had a higher rate of immunoconversion (3.4%), compared to either non-swimmers (0.0%, p = 0.003) or waders and non-swimmers combined (0.4%, Odds Ratio: 5.07, 95% Confidence Interval:1.48–17.00). Immunoconversion was not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between swimming at a beach impacted by fecal contamination and asymptomatic norovirus infection. The findings implicate recreational water as potentially important transmission pathway for norovirus infection.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Waterborne disease outbreaks associated with environmental and undetermined exposures to water - United States, 2013-201... R. Paul McClung, David M. Roth, Marissa Vigar, Virginia A. R... Published: 21 December 2017
American Journal of Transplantation, doi: 10.1111/ajt.14607
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This article describe outbreaks of infections, including legionella and giardia, linked to environmental exposure to water, such as aerosol spread from cooling towers, industrial or agricultural processes, decorative displays, and consumption of water from natural sources.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Erratum: "Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Emergency Room Visits for Gastrointestinal Illness: Analysis of Massachusetts Dat... Jyotsna S Jagai, Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Cynthia J Lin, E... Published: 19 December 2017
Environ. Health Perspect., doi: 10.1289/EHP3143
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1289/EHP2048.].
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Child environmental exposures to water and sand at the beach: Findings from studies of over 68,000 subjects at 12 beache... Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Benjamin F Arnold, Elizabeth A Sa... Published: 08 November 2017
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, doi: 10.1038/jes.2017.23
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Swimming and recreating in lakes, oceans, and rivers is common, yet the literature suggests children may be at greater risk of illness following such exposures. These effects might be due to differences in immunity or differing behavioral factors such as poorer hygiene, longer exposures to, and greater ingestion of potentially contaminated water and sand. We pooled data from 12 prospective cohorts (n=68,685) to examine exposures to potentially contaminated media such as beach water and sand among children compared with adults, and conducted a simulation using self-reported time spent in the water and volume of water swallowed per minute by age to estimate the total volume of water swallowed per swimming event by age category. Children aged 4-7 and 8-12 years had the highest exposures to water, sand, and algae compared with other age groups. Based on our simulation, we found that children (6-12 years) swallow a median of 36 ml (90th percentile=150 ml), whereas adults aged ≥35 years swallow 9 ml (90th percentile=64 ml) per swimming event, with male children swallowing a greater amount of water compared with females. These estimates may help to reduce uncertainty surrounding routes and durations of recreational exposures and can support the development of chemical and microbial risk assessments.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 8 November 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.23.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Extreme precipitation and emergency room visits for influenza in Massachusetts: a case-crossover analysis. Genee S Smith, Kyle P Messier, James L Crooks, Timothy J Wad... Published: 17 October 2017
Environmental Health, doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0312-7
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Influenza peaks during the wintertime in temperate regions and during the annual rainy season in tropical regions - however reasons for the observed differences in disease ecology are poorly understood. We hypothesize that episodes of extreme precipitation also result in increased influenza in the Northeastern United States, but this association is not readily apparent, as no defined 'rainy season' occurs. Our objective was to evaluate the association between extreme precipitation (≥ 99th percentile) events and risk of emergency room (ER) visit for influenza in Massachusetts during 2002-2008.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Exposure to human-associated fecal indicators and self-reported illness among swimmers at recreational beaches: a cohort... Richard Haugland, Manju Varma, Melanie D. Napier, Charles Po... Published: 02 October 2017
Environmental Health, doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0308-3
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Background Fecal indicator bacteria used to assess illness risks in recreational waters (e.g., Escherichia coli, Enterococci) cannot discriminate among pollution sources. To address this limitation, human-associated Bacteroides markers have been proposed, but the risk of illness associated with the presence of these markers in recreational waters is unclear. Our objective was to estimate associations between human-associated Bacteroides markers in water and self-reported illness among swimmers at 6 U.S. beaches spanning 2003–2007. Methods We used data from a prospectively-enrolled cohort of 12,060 swimmers surveyed about beach activities and water exposure on the day of their beach visit. Ten to twelve days later, participants reported gastroinestinal, diarrheal, and respiratory illnesses experienced since the visit. Daily water samples were analyzed for the presence of human-associated Bacteroides genetic markers: HF183, BsteriF1, BuniF2, HumM2. We used model-based standardization to estimate risk differences (RD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed whether the presence of Bacteroides markers were modifiers of the association between general Enterococcus and illness among swimmers using interaction contrast. Results Overall we observed inconsistent associations between the presence of Bacteroides markers and illness. There was a pattern of increased risks of gastrointestinal (RD = 1.9%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 3.7%), diarrheal (RD = 1.3%; 95% CI: -0.2%, 2.7%), and respiratory illnesses (RD = 1.1%; 95% CI: -0.2%, 2.5%) associated with BsteriF1. There was no evidence that Bacteroides markers acted as modifiers of Enterococcus and illness. Patterns were similar when stratified by water matrix. Conclusions Quantitative measures of fecal pollution using Bacteroides, rather than presence-absence indicators, may be necessary to accurately assess human risk specific to the presence of human fecal pollution.