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Timeline of Carlos Javierre

2018
Sep
20
Published new article




Article

Influence of the Composition on the Environmental Impact of Soft Ferrites

Published: 20 September 2018 by MDPI in Materials

doi: 10.3390/ma11101789

The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the composition on the environmental impact of the two main types of soft ferrites, allowing scientists and engineers to compare them based not only on cost and properties, but also on an environmental point of view. Iron oxides are the basis of soft ferrites, but these ferrites have a wide range of compositions, using materials such as manganese or nickel, which affect their magnetic properties, but also modify the environmental impact. A Life Cycle Assessment has been carried out for manganese‒zinc (MnZn) and nickel‒zinc (NiZn) soft ferrites, with a Monte Carlo approach to assess multiple compositions. The LCA model was developed with SimaPro 8.4, using the EcoInvent v3.4 life cycle inventory database. Environmental impact values were calculated under the ReCiPe and Carbon Footprint methodologies, obtaining a broad variety of results depending on the composition. The results were also significantly different from the standard EcoInvent ferrite. For the analyzed soft ferrites, the presence of manganese or nickel is a key factor from an environmental perspective, as these materials involve high environmental impacts, and their supply risk has increased during recent years, making them a concern for European manufacturers.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Sep
16
Published new article




Article

Electricity Consumption Estimation of the Polymer Material Injection-Molding Manufacturing Process: Empirical Model and ...

Published: 16 September 2018 by MDPI in Materials

doi: 10.3390/ma11091740

Polymer injection-molding is one of the most used manufacturing processes for the production of plastic products. Its electricity consumption highly influences its cost as well as its environmental impact. Reducing these factors is one of the challenges that material science and production engineering face today. However, there is currently a lack of data regarding electricity consumption values for injection-molding, which leads to significant errors due to the inherent high variability of injection-molding and its configurations. In this paper, an empirical model is proposed to better estimate the electricity consumption and the environmental impact of the injection-molding process. This empirical model was created after measuring the electricity consumption of a wide range of parts. It provides a method to estimate both electricity consumption and environmental impact, taking into account characteristics of both the molded parts and the molding machine. A case study of an induction cooktop housing is presented, showing adequate accuracy of the empirical model and the importance of proper machine selection to reduce cost, electricity consumption, and environmental impact.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jun
15
Published new article




Article

Visco-Hyperelastic Model with Damage for Simulating Cyclic Thermoplastic Elastomers Behavior Applied to an Industrial Co...

Published: 15 June 2018 by MDPI in Polymers

doi: 10.3390/polym10060668

In this work a nonlinear phenomenological visco-hyperelastic model including damage consideration is developed to simulate the behavior of Santoprene 101-73 material. This type of elastomeric material is widely used in the automotive and aeronautic sectors, as it has multiple advantages. However, there are still challenges in properly analyzing the mechanical phenomena that these materials exhibit. To simulate this kind of material a lot of theories have been exposed, but none of them have been endorsed unanimously. In this paper, a new model is presented based on the literature, and on experimental data. The test samples were extracted from an air intake duct component of an automotive engine. Inelastic phenomena such as hyperelasticity, viscoelasticity and damage are considered singularly in this model, thus modifying and improving some relevant models found in the literature. Optimization algorithms were used to find out the model parameter values that lead to the best fit of the experimental curves from the tests. An adequate fitting was obtained for the experimental results of a cyclic uniaxial loading of Santoprene 101-73.

2 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
May
23
Published new article






<strong>Empirical Model to estimate the Electricity Consumption of the Polymer Material Injection Molding Manufacturing ...

Published: 23 May 2018 by MDPI AG in The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Materials Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ecms2018-05260

<p>Polymer injection moulding is one of the most used manufacturing processes in the industry. Material and electricity consumption are two of the main points when analyzing the cost and also the environmental impact of this manufacturing processes. Reducing both cost and environmental impact of materials and manufacturing process is one of the key challenges that material science and engineering face today to be more sustainable. In the case of the polymer injection moulding manufacturing process, reducing its electricity consumption is key to achieve a more sustainable manufacturing process. However, a lack of data regarding real electrical consumption values, and how to estimate them has been found. In this paper, a model to estimate the electric consumption of the injectin molding manufacturing process is proposed. This consumption estimation is obtained by means of a parametric model which was created after monitoring the electricity consumption of a wide range of injected parts. By applying this empirical model a better assessment of the electricity consumption, and also the environmental impact of the process can be achieved. This model can be of great interest for manufacturing process engineers, Life Cycle Assessment practitioners and also the industry, as it provides a method to estimate the electricity consumption and cost of an injected part depending on its characteristics and the selected injection machine.</p>

23 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
May
17
Published new article






<strong>Influence of the Composition on the Environmental Impact of Soft Ferrites</strong>

Published: 17 May 2018 by MDPI AG in The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Materials Sciences

doi: 10.3390/ecms2018-05232

<p><span>The aim of this paper is to better understand the influence of the composition on the environmental impact of soft ferrite magnetic materials. Magnetically soft ferrites are ceramic homogeneous materials that have a cubic crystal structure. Soft ferrites have low coercitivity with a high resistivity, low losses and high permeability, and are commonly used in high frequency applications. A life cycle assessment (LCA) has been carried out analyzing EcoInvent average ferrite dataset and updating it with material compositions of manganese-zinc (MnZn) ferrites, one of the major categories of soft ferrites. MnZn ferrites use iron oxide as their main component adding manganese oxide (17%-24.5% in weight) and zinc oxide (6.5%-14% in weight). Depending on their composition, their magnetical properties change (such as permeability, losses, Curie temperature&hellip;). The influence of the material composition has been assessed, obtaining more knowledge of their environmental impact. The main environmental problem that generates the use of soft ferrites, under ReCiPe methodology, is in the metal depletion category. Ferrites use in their composition metals that are scarce, such as Manganese. Manganese is included in the 2017 EU strategic materials list due to its high economic importance in the EU industry, and also its supply risk. The software used to develop the LCA model was SimaPro 8.4, with EcoInvent v3.4 life cycle inventory database. Both are currently the most used tools to evaluate environmental impact in the LCA scientific community. By means of the performed LCA, environmental impact values under ReCiPe methodology will be obtained to assess the influence of the composition on the overall impact. This analysis shows the large influence of material composition on the environmental impact of ferrites, allowing engineers and material scientist to choose between different ones taking also into account its sustainability.</span></p>

80 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

A comparative study of hyperelastic constitutive models for an automotive shaft seal material

Published: 01 January 2018 by Inderscience Publishers in International Journal of Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing

doi: 10.1504/ijscom.2018.10012689

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2018
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

A comparative study of hyperelastic constitutive models for an automotive shaft seal material

Published: 01 January 2018 by Inderscience Publishers in International Journal of Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing

doi: 10.1504/ijscom.2018.091614

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2016
Jun
17
Published new article




Article

Sustainable Supply Chain Management: The Influence of Disposal Scenarios on the Environmental Impact of a 2400 L Waste C...

Published: 17 June 2016 by MDPI in Sustainability

doi: 10.3390/su8060564

This paper analyzes the influence of the supply chain management on the environmental impact of a 2400 L waste disposal container used in most cities of Spain. The studied functional unit, a waste disposal container, made up mostly of plastic materials and a metallic structure, and manufactured in Madrid (Spain), is distributed to several cities at an average distance of 392 km. A life cycle assessment of four different scenarios (SC) has been calculated with the software EcoTool v4.0 (version 4.0; i+: Zaragoza, Spain, 2015) and using Ecoinvent v3.0 database (version 3.0; Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories: St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2013). The environmental impact has been characterized with two different methodologies, recipe and carbon footprint. In order to reduce the environmental impact, several end of life scenarios have been performed, analyzing the influence of the supply chain on a closed-looped system that increases recycling. Closed loop management of the waste and reuse of parts allows companies to stop selling products and start selling the service that their products give to the consumers.

5 Reads | 4 Citations
2016
May
25
Published new article




Article

Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

Published: 25 May 2016 by MDPI in Materials

doi: 10.3390/ma9060412

The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.

4 Reads | 3 Citations
2016
Apr
07
Published new article




Article

Adequacy of Technical and Commercial Alternatives Applied to Machine Tool Verification Using Laser Tracker

Published: 07 April 2016 by MDPI in Applied Sciences

doi: 10.3390/app6040100

Besides presenting a volumetric verification technique that allows characterization of the different geometric errors of a machine tool (MT) depending on its kinematic chain and geometry through a kinematic model, this paper investigates the influence of measurement tools and techniques available on the final accuracy of the MT. Volumetric verification based on a laser tracker (LT) relates the coordinates of the tool with the coordinates of the LT, including it into the kinematic model. Using a non-lineal optimization process, approximation functions that characterize the joint influence of MT geometric errors are obtained. However, measurement data will be affected by previous compensation of the MT, the accuracy of the measurement system, LT measurement technology, the type of retroreflector used, and techniques used to improve data accuracy, among other sources of errors. This paper studies the adequacy of different commercial alternatives such as: retroreflectors, LTs from different manufacturers, etc., that can be applied in MT verification using a long-range MT. As the accuracy is strongly affected by the uncertainty of its angular encoders, the multilateration technique tries to improve data accuracy using only LT radial information. Nonetheless, a new bundle adjustment which uses radial and angular information is presented in current metrology software. This paper studies both techniques and analyzes their adequacy for MT verification too.

6 Reads | 2 Citations
2016
Apr
01
Published new article




Article

The influence of environmental conditions on the dimensional stability of components injected with PA6 and PA66

Published: 01 April 2016 by Elsevier BV in Polymer Testing

doi: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2015.12.008

The design of assembly components requires special attention to aspects related to their dimensions to ensure their functionality. The goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of case-based environmental conditions, including extreme hydrothermal conditions, on the dimensional stability of a component made from different polyamides throughout the component’s working life. The results support the conclusion that components made from PA6 have a higher capacity to absorb humidity than those made from PA66 and, on the other hand, a higher capacity to lose this humidity, which implies a more significant effect on the average error in the dimensions considered (12% for PA6 in comparison to 3% for PA66). With regard to assembly dimensions, components remain within dimensional tolerances under average and extreme humidity conditions and average temperature conditions. Components injected with P66 are more stable for all of the situations analysed.

2 Reads | 5 Citations
2016
Feb
08
Published new article




Article

Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

Published: 08 February 2016 by SAGE Publications in Advances in Mechanical Engineering

doi: 10.1177/1687814016630518

Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2016
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Environmental assessment tool to analyse the presence of critical and valuable raw materials

Published: 01 January 2016 by Inderscience Publishers in International Journal of Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing

doi: 10.1504/IJSCOM.2016.10003151

4 Reads | 0 Citations
2016
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Environmental assessment tool to analyse the presence of critical and valuable raw materials

Published: 01 January 2016 by Inderscience Publishers in International Journal of Service and Computing Oriented Manufacturing

doi: 10.1504/IJSCOM.2016.082238

5 Reads | 0 Citations
2015
Dec
01
Published new article




Article

Environmental impact analysis of the injection molding process: analysis of the processing of high-density polyethylene ...

Published: 01 December 2015 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Cleaner Production

doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.119

10 Reads | 5 Citations
2015
Nov
01
Published new article




Article

Influence of the material composition on the environmental impact of surface-mount device (SMD) transistors

Published: 01 November 2015 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Cleaner Production

doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.05.063

4 Reads | 1 Citations
2015
Sep
01
Published new article




Article

Methodology for clamping load measurement of locking systems based on white light digitalization

Published: 01 September 2015 by Elsevier BV in Measurement

doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2015.05.042

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2015
Apr
28
Published new article




Article

Influence of mechanical design on the evolution of the environmental impact of an induction hob

Published: 28 April 2015 by Springer Nature in The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

doi: 10.1007/s11367-015-0890-y

This paper studies the influence of the mechanical design of five different induction hob generations (G1 to G5), which are currently installed in several million homes, on the evolution of their environmental impact. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied using SimaPro 8.0.3.14 and EcoInvent v2.2 database. Samples of each design were obtained to generate a life cycle inventory. These induction hobs have been developed and produced in Zaragoza (Spain). The functional unit has been defined as all of the components influenced by the mechanical design of a cooktop with four induction hobs and a width of 60 cm, including every component except the electronic boards and the use phase, as they are not affected by the mechanical design. The limits of the LCA model include the production of the raw materials and energy, the manufacture and production processes, the distribution, and the end of life. This study has revealed that the differences in mechanical design highly affect the environmental impact, especially in the environmental categories of abiotic depletion and human toxicity due to the consumption of copper, steel, and plastics. The manufacturing phase highly affects human toxicity, mainly due to the variation in PPS use. There is a decreasing tendency in the environmental impact from the first (G1) to the last generation (G5), as G5 causes the lowest burden in 8 out of 11 analysed categories. The different generations analysed in this paper show that the compact designs of induction hobs help to decrease the environmental impact, especially thanks to the reduction in wiring lengths. It is also important to enhance the wiring separation at the end-of-life phase, avoiding designs that hinder recycling processes. Compact designs and reduced wiring lengths help to reduce the environmental impact. The consumption of copper, steel, aluminium, and polymers creates considerable impact, although the end-of-life phase reduces the burden created by metals, thanks to recycling. Manufacturing processes such as injection moulding also produce a noteworthy impact, especially in ozone layer depletion due to the inclusion of solvents in EcoInvent’s injection moulding dataset. The impact caused by the distribution phase for this product is almost negligible in most categories.

6 Reads | 1 Citations
2015
Mar
31
Published new article




Article

LCI Databases Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Injection Molding Process

Published: 31 March 2015 by MDPI in Sustainability

doi: 10.3390/su7043792

During the last decades, society’s concern for the environment has increased. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes. Calculating the environmental impact of plastic products is relevant as the global plastics production rose to 288 million tons in 2012. Among the different ways of processing plastics, the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis of the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory for injection molding, and the data from which this database is created, have been studied. Generally, when an LCA of a product is carried out, databases such as EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used to quantify the environmental impact. This approach can be good enough in some cases but in order to assess a specific production process, like injection molding, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ for injection molding when using the PVC’s, PP’s or PET’s data. This aspect suggests the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process, to correctly evaluate its environmental burden. This also allows us to identify priority areas and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing plastics.

6 Reads | 5 Citations
2015
Mar
01
Published new article




Article

A new extrusion head with integrated ultrasonic device and online process parameters measurements system — design and te...

Published: 01 March 2015 by Industrial Chemistry Research Institute in Polimery

doi: 10.14314/polimery.2015.209

0 Reads | 0 Citations
2015
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Surface Roughness Evolution Model for Finishing Using an Abrasive Tool on a Robot

Published: 01 January 2015 by IntechOpen in International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems

doi: 10.5772/61251

The polishing process is the final step in the manufacturing workflow for many parts and tools. While previous tasks have evolved technically, the finishing of freeform surfaces is still effected mostly by hand. Many parts are rejected because no control of the process is possible. The main problems are geometrical shape deviations and no repeatability of the process. A new methodology has been developed for the passes of the abrasive on the polished part.This research focusses on the feasibility of robotic polishing and the development of a new evolution model pertaining to the surface roughness for an abrasive tool mounted on a spherical robot. The polishing principle is mechanic and based on dry friction. The tool is multilayered with a compressive foamed core. The combination of rotational and translational movement requires the creation of a model that can predict the footprint on the polished surface. The mathematical model developed for the evolution model permits for making a prediction of the final surface quality in the function of the programmed polishing parameters. Furthermore, the model described allows for setting up polishing parameters in order to reach a desired final roughness with less than 15% deviation. Repeatability is assured and polishing time is reduced down to 1/5 of manually effected procedures.

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2014
Nov
17
Published new article






Environmental Assessment Design Tool Specially Developed for Mechanical Engineering Students

Published: 17 November 2014 by MDPI AG in The 4th World Sustainability Forum

doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-h004

Over the last two decades, the environmental conscience has been steadily growing. Nowadays a wide range of companies have started to measure the environmental impact of their products performing Life Cycle Assessment in order to reduce it and contribute to sustainable growing. This environmental awareness has also influenced legislation, for example, the European Union has devoted several laws to introduce ecodesign measures in energy-using and energy-related products. However, although most industrial products (TVs, computers, cars...) are designed and developed by engineers, most of them have not received environmental training in their university studies. In order to teach environmental design concepts to mechanical engineering undergraduates, an environmental impact assessment tool has been created. In this paper the ECOCAD software is shown, as commercially LCA software is not prepared to be used by untrained users. ECOCAD allows students to easily analyze the influence of design decisions on the environmental impact of a component, allowing them to compare different materials (steel, aluminum, plastics... each one with different Young Modules and elastic admissible strains), calculating how the safety coefficient changes depending on the loading conditions. Also the environmental impact of manufacturing processes (stamping, plastic injection, thermoforming, die cast, extrusion....), transportation from suppliers, and to the final customers (truck, train, freight ship...), and end-of-life treatments (recycling, incineration, land-filling...) can be taken into account, allowing the students to fully understand how design decisions influence the environmental impact of a product and compare design alternatives.

5 Reads | 0 Citations
2014
Oct
31
Published new article






LCA Software for Engineering Training on Product Development

Published: 31 October 2014 by MDPI AG in The 4th World Sustainability Forum

doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-h003

Environmental conscience has been growing gradually in recent decades. The market is demanding ecological actions over the products, and legislation is introducing ecodesign measures in products. Because of that, ecodesign is becoming an important discipline in engineering, to take into account the environmental impact of the product during its development, performing Life Cycle Assessment, but it is not still a common discipline in engineering. Training focused on LCA for product development is essential to introduce ecodesign between engineering students, who are not used to work with environmental concepts. The best tool for this training is LCA software to learn through the practice how to calculate the environmental impact of a design, and how this results can be used to improve their designs from an ecological point of view. This work presents the ECOTOOL, software designed to train engineers in LCA methodology. Current existing LCA software are not prepared to be used by untrained engineers, sometimes because they are difficult to be used due to large databases and the complex working environment, and sometimes they are extremely simplified, not sensitive to design modifications. ECOTOOL allows complete LCA performing with a working environment similar to other engineering tools, like professional CAD software, well known by engineers. It is provided with reduced databases, training helps, simplified results and an intuitive working environment to allow students to easily analyze the environmental impact of their designs and apply design actions to optimize it, at the same time they learn the concepts of LCA methodology. Comments to the editor: Thank you for your kind review. The claim that 'the market is demanding ecological actions' will be explained and justified in the paper, as there are links between European legislation and the environmental conscience in Europe. The expression "appropriate training" has been modified in the abstract to avoid misunderstandings. With “appropriate” we intended to mean that the training should be focused on environmental impact assessment for product development, and not just focused on environmental impact assessment in a scientific context, talking only about the calculation and the scientifically basis. For us, it is very important to focus the training in this discipline into a practical application, which is the product development, so products could be improved from an ecological point of view thanks to environmental impact assessment during the design process.

6 Reads | 0 Citations
2014
Oct
31
Published new article






Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Polymer Injection Molding Process

Published: 31 October 2014 by MDPI AG in The 4th World Sustainability Forum

doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-d007

During the last decades the environmental concern of society has experienced an increase. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes very diverse. Global plastics production rose to 288 million tonnes in 2012. Among the different ways of plastics processing the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper an analysis of the influence of the polymer in the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory considered and the data from which this database is obtained for this process have been studied. In general, when a LCA of a product is carried out, databases such EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used. This approach can be good enough for some cases but in order to assess a specific process, like the injection molding process, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ significantly when modifying the generic dataset's values, using the PVC's, PP's or PET's original report data or more updated values. This aspect suggest the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process to evaluate its environmental burden correctly so the priority areas can be properly identified and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing can be determined.

7 Reads | 0 Citations
2014
Oct
01
Published new article




Article

Methodology to Analyze the Influence of Microcellular Injection Molding on Mechanical Properties with Samples Obtained D...

Published: 01 October 2014 by SAGE Publications in Polymers and Polymer Composites

doi: 10.1177/096739111402200814

1 Reads | 0 Citations
2014
Aug
11
Published new article




Article

The Influence of Different Recycling Scenarios on the Mechanical Design of an LED Weatherproof Light Fitting

Published: 11 August 2014 by MDPI in Materials

doi: 10.3390/ma7085769

This paper analyzes the high relevance of material selection for the sustainable development of an LED weatherproof light fitting. The research reveals how this choice modifies current and future end of life scenarios and can reduce the overall environmental impact. This life cycle assessment has been carried out with Ecotool, a software program especially developed for designers to assess the environmental performance of their designs at the same time that they are working on them. Results show that special attention can be put on the recycling and reusing of the product from the initial stages of development.

0 Reads | 3 Citations
2014
Aug
01
Published new article




Article

Life cycle assessment of a domestic induction hob: electronic boards

Published: 01 August 2014 by Elsevier BV in Journal of Cleaner Production

doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.04.009

This study analyzes the environmental performance of the electronic boards used in the current generation of induction hob designed and assembled in Spain. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been performed, defining the functional unit as the electronic boards used in an induction cooktop with 4 hobs and 7.2 kW of nominal power. The electronic boards are two power electronic boards (ELIN PCBAs -Printed Circuit Board Assembly-), and one touch control electronic board (Touch Control PCBA). Each one has been thoroughly analysed having into account every electronic component. The software used to create the LCA model was SimaPro 7.3.3, using two databases Ecoinvent v2.2 and Chalmers CPM LCA Database. The most relevant environmental impact in every category is caused by the two ELIN PCBAs. Touch Control PCBA has significant impact in Ozone Layer Depletion, although its value is four times lower than the emissions of one ELIN PCBA. Both ELIN PCBAs show similar environmental impact distribution. Components create between 70 and 85% of the total impact in most categories. Touch Control PCBA has a different environmental impact distribution from both ELIN PCBA. This analysis of the environmental impact of the ELIN PCBAs and the Touch Control PCBA used in an induction hob has revealed that there are several clear areas for improvement, such as reducing the environmental impact of the components and improving its end-of-life treatment.

0 Reads | 10 Citations
2014
Mar
01
Published new article




Article

ROTATION ERROR MODELING AND IDENTIFICATION FOR ROBOT KINEMATIC CALIBRATION BY CIRCLE POINT METHOD

Published: 01 March 2014 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH in Metrology and Measurement Systems

doi: 10.2478/mms-2014-0009

Screw axis measurement methods obtain a precise identification of the physical reality of the industrial robots’ geometry. However, these methods are in a clear disadvantage compared to mathematical optimisation processes for kinematical parameters. That’s because mathematical processes obtain kinematical parameters which best reduce the robot errors, despite not necessarily representing the real geometry of the robot. This paper takes the next step at the identification of a robot’s movement from the identification of its real kinematical parameters for the later study of every articulation’s rotation. We then obtain a combination of real kinematic and dynamic parameters which describe the robot’s movement, improving its precision with a physical understanding of the errors.

1 Reads | 3 Citations
2014
Feb
01
Published new article




Article

In-line rheological testing of thermoplastics and a monitored device for an injection moulding machine: Application to r...

Published: 01 February 2014 by Elsevier BV in Polymer Testing

doi: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2013.11.008

0 Reads | 5 Citations
2014
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Analysis of the Influence of Microcellular Injection Molding on the Environmental Impact of an Industrial Component

Published: 01 January 2014 by Hindawi Limited in Advances in Mechanical Engineering

doi: 10.1155/2014/793269

Microcellular injection molding is a process that offers numerous benefits due to the internal structure generated; thus, many applications are currently being developed in different fields, especially home appliances. In spite of the advantages, when changing the manufacturing process from conventional to microcellular injection molding, it is necessary to analyze its new mechanical properties and the environmental impact of the component. This paper presents a deep study of the environmental behavior of a manufactured component by both conventional and microcellular injection molding. Environmental impact will be evaluated performing a life cycle assessment. Functionality of the component will be also evaluated with samples obtained from manufactured components, to make sure that the mechanical requirements are fulfilled when using microcellular injection molding. For this purpose a special device has been developed to measure the flexural modulus. With a 16% weight reduction, the variation of flexural properties in the microcellular injected components is only 6.8%. Although the energy consumption of the microcellular injection process slightly increases, there is an overall reduction of the environmental burden of 14.9% in ReCiPe and 15% in carbon footprint. Therefore, MuCell technology can be considered as a green manufacturing technology for components working mainly under flexural load.

0 Reads | 1 Citations
2013
Apr
01
Published new article




Article

Development of Thermoplastic Material Food Packaging Considering Technical, Economic and Environmental Criteria

Published: 01 April 2013 by American Scientific Publishers in Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy

doi: 10.1166/jbmb.2013.1323

0 Reads | 5 Citations
2012
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Influence of the Recycled Material Percentage on the Mechanical Behaviour of HDPE for Injection Moulding Process for an ...

Published: 01 January 2012 by Trans Tech Publications in Advanced Materials Research

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.445.935

Nowadays plastic materials recycling aims most of the time to use the recycled material to manufacture products of less requirements than the original products, so the material is depreciated. It would be important to recycle plastic materials to use them for the same applications they were initially used. To make this possible it would be necessary to characterize the recycled material properties, design products taking into account that they are going to be produced with recycled material and to be able to recuperate the product at the end of its lifetime. An example of this designing philosophy is going to be presented in this work, applied to large trash containers produced with HDPE (RIGIDEX5740UA), where the product can be easily recovered at the end of its lifetime and also the amount of polymer material wasted during thermoplastic injection moulding is very high. Recycling mills convert parts into small pieces that are used as feed material for injection again, by mixing it in different percentages with raw material. This mixture of both raw and recycled material modifies material properties according to the percentage of recycled material introduced. Some of the properties affected by this modification are those related to mechanical behaviour. This paper analyzes the mechanical behaviour of material with different percentages of recycled material. Test parts have been injected with different percentage of recycled material and have been tested by a tensile machine. Results like; Stress at yield, Stress at break and Young Modulus have been calculated and analysed. The product of this work has been designed using only one plastic material, which is very helpful from the point of view of manufacturing and recycling. In these kinds of parts a very tight safety factor is used, thats why to know exactly material properties is very important during its design.

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2012
Jan
01
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Article

Influence of the Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of PA 6 - Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites for In...

Published: 01 January 2012 by Trans Tech Publications in Advanced Materials Research

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.445.313

Nowadays polymer based nanocomposites are very interesting to manufacture products of less weight and higher mechanical properties and specific performance depending on the morphology of nanoscaled reinforcement. Most of these potential improvements are focused to the challenges newer products require like HEV (hybrid or electrical vehicles) for example. The development of these new products requires the full characterization of the rheological and mechanical behavior of the materials and the correct preparation of the raw material for further processing. As an example two nanocomposite blends were prepared letting down a masterbach of PA6+30% HNT (Halloysite nanotubes) to 3% and 6% of HNT content in a PA6 matrix of (BADADUR). The letting down process was developed in an extrusion-compounding machine (COPERION ZSK 26) and the rheological behavior was determined in a capillar rheometer obtaining the viscosity curves of the material needed for injection molding simulation. The products obtained were used for injection molding of test specimens in an electrical injection machine (JSW EL II 85). In addition, the letting down process was done directly in the injection machine in order to establish the relevance of the previous extrusion process. The probes obtained were analyzed by DSC and FTIR to determine the functional groups of the resultant product and SEM and TEM to determine the quality of the dispersion of the nanotubes. The probes were finally tested to determine its stiffness and tensile properties. The results showed the feasibility to develop parts made of nanocomposite with improved performance with scaled industry equipment with natural reinforcements..

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2012
Jan
01
Published new article




Article

Influence of the Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of PA 6 - Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites for In...

Published: 01 January 2012 by Trans Tech Publications in Advanced Materials Research

doi: 10.4028/scientific5/amr.445.313

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2012
Jan
01
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Article

Influence of the Recycled Material Percentage on the Mechanical Behaviour of HDPE for Injection Moulding Process for an ...

Published: 01 January 2012 by Trans Tech Publications in Advanced Materials Research

doi: 10.4028/scientific5/amr.445.935

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2009
Dec
01
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Article

Validation of the Method for Generation of Rheological Model to Characterize Non-Conventional Injection Molding by Means...

Published: 01 December 2009 by Trans Tech Publications in Advanced Materials Research

doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.83-86.250

This paper presents the results derived from the research, whose first results were presented at AMPT 2005. At this conference, a new method for generation of rheological model to characterize non-conventional injection moulding by means of spiral mould was presented. The continuity of this research line has consisted of the development of several tests for validation of the rheological model obtained with the new method. Viscosity of a PEHD with different percentages of recycled has been tested, by means of several kinds of rheometers, like capillary rheometer and rotational rheometer, and the results has been compared to those obtained with the spiral mould. Conclusions of this research show the suitable parameters range, at which the results are comparable for the new method. On the other hand, another work line for the validation of the rheological models has begun, by applying the models to CAE injection moulding software, and checking the results by experimental trials with a industrial mould. This mould has been adapted to register pressure results during injection cycle. These trials take into account the influence of most of the injection process parameters, as well as different percentages of recycled.

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2009
Aug
01
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Article

Study of the biodisintegration of a bioplastic material waste

Published: 01 August 2009 by Elsevier BV in Bioresource Technology

doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.049

The aim of this work was to study the biodisintegration degree of different pieces made of a biodegradable thermoplastic material, the polylactic acid (PLA) with and without corn in its composition, is studied. The pieces of different shapes and thicknesses were obtained by both injection and extrusion processes, where also a specific foaming additive of polystyrene was added. The PLA and PLA-corn manufactured pieces were subjected to aerobic degradation at a constant temperature of 58 ± 2 °C for 90 days, following EN 14806 and ISO 20200:2004 Norms. It was found that the pieces made of PLA and PLA with foaming agent had an average biodisintegration degree of 63.6%. With regard to the pieces made of PLA-corn, an average biodisintegration degree of 79.7% was obtained. In this case, the percentage of non degraded material was independent of the size, shape and thickness of the original pieces.

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