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Theodore Hughes-Riley     Post Doctoral Researcher 
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Theodore Hughes-Riley published an article in January 2019.
Top co-authors See all
Robert H. Morris

140 shared publications

School of Science and Technology; Nottingham Trent University; Clifton Lane Nottingham NG11 8NS UK

M.I. Newton

91 shared publications

School of Science and Technology; Nottingham Trent University; Clifton Lane Nottingham NG11 8NS UK

Tilak Dias

20 shared publications

Advanced Textiles Research Group, School of Art & Design, Nottingham Trent University, Bonington Building, Dryden Street, Nottingham NG1 4GG, UK

Pasindu Lugoda

4 shared publications

Advanced Textiles Research Group, School of Art & Design, Nottingham Trent University, Bonington Building, Dryden Street, Nottingham NG1 4GG, UK

Elizabeth Dye

3 shared publications

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2012 - 2019)
Total number of journals
published in
Publications See all
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations A Novel Method for Embedding Semiconductor Dies within Textile Yarn to Create Electronic Textiles Mohamad-Nour Nashed, Dorothy Anne Hardy, Theodore Hughes-Ril... Published: 26 January 2019
Fibers, doi: 10.3390/fib7020012
DOI See at publisher website ABS Show/hide abstract
Electronic yarns (E-yarns) contain electronics fully incorporated into the yarn’s structure prior to textile or garment production. They consist of a conductive core made from a flexible, multi-strand copper wire onto which semiconductor dies or MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) are soldered. The device and solder joints are then encapsulated within a resin micro-pod, which is subsequently surrounded by a textile sheath, which also covers the copper wires. The encapsulation of semiconductor dies or MEMS devices within the resin polymer micro-pod is a critical component of the fabrication process, as the micro-pod protects the dies from mechanical and chemical stresses, and hermetically seals the device, which makes the E-yarn washable. The process of manufacturing E-yarns requires automation to increase production speeds and to ensure consistency of the micro-pod structure. The design and development of a semi-automated encapsulation unit used to fabricate the micro-pods is presented here. The micro-pods were made from a ultra-violet (UV) curable polymer resin. This work details the choice of machinery and methods to create a semi-automated encapsulation system in which incoming dies were detected then covered in resin micro-pods. The system detected incoming 0402 metric package dies with an accuracy of 87 to 98%.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations The characterization of a pressure sensor constructed from a knitted spacer structure Theodore Hughes-Riley, Carlos Oliveira, Roberth Morris, Tila... Published: 01 January 2019
Digital Medicine, doi: 10.4103/digm.digm_17_18
DOI See at publisher website
Article 2 Reads 1 Citation Photodiodes embedded within electronic textiles Achala Satharasinghe, Theodore Hughes-Riley, Tilak Dias Published: 01 November 2018
Scientific Reports, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34483-8
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A novel photodiode-embedded yarn has been presented and characterized for the first time, offering new possibilities for applications including monitoring body vital signs (including heart rate, blood oxygen and skin temperature) and environmental conditions (light, humidity and ultraviolet radiation). To create an E-Textile integrated with electronic devices that is comfortable, conformal, aesthetically pleasing and washable, electronic components are best integrated within the structure of a textile fabric in yarn form. The device is first encapsulated within a protective clear resin micro-pod before being covered in a fibrous sheath. The resin micro-pod and covering fibres have a significant effect on the nature of light received by the photoactive region of the device. This work characterised the effects of both encapsulating photodiodes within resin micro-pods and covering the micro-pod with a fibrous sheath on the opto-electronic parameters. A theoretical model is presented to provide an estimate for these effects and validated experimentally using two photodiode types and a range of different resin micro-pods. This knowledge may have wider applications to other devices with small-scale opto-electronic components. Wash tests confirmed that the yarns could survive multiple machine wash and drying cycles without deterioration in performance.
Article 0 Reads 2 Citations A Wearable Textile Thermograph Pasindu Lugoda, Theodore Hughes-Riley, Rob Morris, Tilak Dia... Published: 21 July 2018
Sensors, doi: 10.3390/s18072369
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In medicine, temperature changes can indicate important underlying pathologies such as wound infection. While thermographs for the detection of wound infection exist, a textile substrate offers a preferable solution to the designs that exist in the literature, as a textile is very comfortable to wear. This work presents a fully textile, wearable, thermograph created using temperature-sensing yarns. As described in earlier work, temperature-sensing yarns are constructed by encapsulating an off-the-shelf thermistor into a polymer resin micro-pod and then embedding this within the fibres of a yarn. This process creates a temperature-sensing yarn that is conformal, drapeable, mechanically resilient, and washable. This work first explored a refined yarn design and characterised its accuracy to take absolute temperature measurements. The influence of contact errors with the refined yarns was explored seeing a 0.24 ± 0.03 measurement error when the yarn was held just 0.5 mm away from the surface being measured. Subsequently, yarns were used to create a thermograph. This work characterises the operation of the thermograph under a variety of simulated conditions to better understand the functionality of this type of textile temperature sensor. Ambient temperature, insulating material, humidity, moisture, bending, compression and stretch were all explored. This work is an expansion of an article published in The 4th International Conference on Sensor and Applications.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Developing Novel Temperature Sensing Garments for Health Monitoring Applications Pasindu Lugoda, Theodore Hughes-Riley, Carlos Oliveira, Rob ... Published: 10 July 2018
Fibers, doi: 10.3390/fib6030046
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Embedding temperature sensors within textiles provides an easy method for measuring skin temperature. Skin temperature measurements are an important parameter for a variety of health monitoring applications, where changes in temperature can indicate changes in health. This work uses a temperature sensing yarn, which was fully characterized in previous work, to create a series of temperature sensing garments: armbands, a glove, and a sock. The purpose of this work was to develop the design rules for creating temperature sensing garments and to understand the limitations of these devices. Detailed design considerations for all three devices are provided. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of contact pressure on skin contact temperature measurements using textile-based temperature sensors. The temperature sensing sock was used for a short user trial where the foot skin temperature of five healthy volunteers was monitored under different conditions to identify the limitations of recording textile-based foot skin temperature measurements. The fit of the sock significantly affected the measurements. In some cases, wearing a shoe or walking also heavily influenced the temperature measurements. These variations show that textile-based foot skin temperature measurements may be problematic for applications where small temperature differences need to be measured.
Article 1 Read 3 Citations Engineering a Costume for Performance Using Illuminated LED-Yarns Dorothy A. Hardy, Andrea Moneta, Viktorija Sakalyte, Lauren ... Published: 01 June 2018
Fibers, doi: 10.3390/fib6020035
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A goal in the field of wearable technology is to blend electronics with textile fibers to create garments that drape and conform as normal, with additional functionality provided by the embedded electronics. This can be achieved with electronic yarns (E-yarns), in which electronics are integrated within the fibers of a yarn. A challenge is incorporating non-stretch E-yarns with stretch fabric that is desirable for some applications. To address this challenge, E-yarns containing LEDs were embroidered onto the stretch fabric of a unitard used as part of a carnival costume. A zig-zag pattern of attachment of E-yarns was developed. Tensile testing showed this pattern was successful in preventing breakages within the E-yarns. Use in performance demonstrated that a dancer was unimpeded by the presence of the E-yarns within the unitard, but also a weakness in the junctions between E-yarns was observed, requiring further design work and reinforcement. The level of visibility of the chosen red LEDs within black E-yarns was low. The project demonstrated the feasibility of using E-yarns with stretch fabrics. This will be particularly useful in applications where E-yarns containing sensors are required in close contact with skin to provide meaningful on-body readings, without impeding the wearer.