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Luis Gimeno published an article in July 2018.
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(1994 - 2018)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations An overview of offshore wind energy resources in Europe under present and future climate Published: 15 July 2018
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1111/nyas.13924
Long‐term sustainable development of European offshore wind energy requires knowledge of the best places for installing offshore wind farms. To achieve this, a good knowledge of wind resources is needed, as well as knowledge of international, European, and national regulations regarding conflict management, marine environment conservation, biodiversity protection, licensing processes, and support regimes. Such a multidisciplinary approach could help to identify areas where wind resources are abundant and where conflicts with other interests are scarce, support measures are greater, and licensing processes are streamlined. An overview of offshore wind power studies at present, and of their future projections for the 21st century, allows for determining the optimal European locations to install or maintain offshore wind farms. Only northern Europe, the northwest portion of the Iberian Peninsula, the Gulf of Lyon, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the northwest coast of Turkey show no change or increase in wind power, revealing these locations as the most suitable for installing and maintaining offshore wind farms in the future. The installation of wind farms is subject to restrictions established under international law, European law, and the domestic legal framework of each EU member state. Europe is moving toward streamlining of licensing procedures, reducing subsidies, and implementing auction systems.
Article 2 Reads 0 Citations A new pattern of the moisture transport for precipitation related to the drastic decline in Arctic sea ice extent Published: 23 May 2018
Earth System Dynamics, doi: 10.5194/esd-9-611-2018
In this study we use the term moisture transport for precipitation for a target region as the moisture coming to this region from its major moisture sources resulting in precipitation over the target region (MTP). We have identified changes in the pattern of moisture transport for precipitation over the Arctic region, the Arctic Ocean, and its 13 main subdomains concurrent with the major sea ice decline that occurred in 2003. The pattern consists of a general decrease in moisture transport in summer and enhanced moisture transport in autumn and early winter, with different contributions depending on the moisture source and ocean subregion. The pattern is statistically significant and consistent with changes in the vertically integrated moisture fluxes and frequency of circulation types. The results of this paper also reveal that the assumed and partially documented enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes as a consequence of increased moisture from climate change seems to be less simple and constant than typically recognised in relation to enhanced Arctic precipitation throughout the year in the present climate.
Article 3 Reads 1 Citation A Lagrangian analysis of the moisture budget over the Fertile Crescent during two intense drought episodes Published: 01 May 2018
Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.03.021
The Fertile Crescent (FC) region comprises the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The FC suffered two severe drought episodes separated by a 7-year period, in 1998 – 2000 and 2007 – 2009, which are considered the most severe episodes to hit the region in the last 50 years. A Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) and ERA-Interim data (with a 1°x1° lat-long resolution) were used to identify for the first time the climatological sources of moisture for the FC and their characteristics. Variability and the source-receptor relationships, concerning their contribution to the precipitation, and the implications regarding the transport of moisture changes over the FC, during the wet season (October-May) from 1980 – 2014 were analysed. The main climatological moisture sources during this period were determined to be the FC itself, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the central and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis showed higher anomalous conditions in the moisture transport from some moisture sources during the two outstanding drought episodes. The key feature of the wet seasons during these episodes was a deficit in the moisture losses over the studied area related to the FC itself, the Red and Arabian Seas sources, followed and to a lesser extent by the eastern Mediterranean Sea over the northern part of the FC region. Nevertheless, the moisture supply deficit from the sources was much greater during the 2007 – 2009 drought event. The SPEI index at large scales (24 months) showed that the 2007 – 2009 episode was part of longer-term drought conditions that had been developing over the previous months, reinforcing the drought severity given recycling processes attributed to the FC. During the two extreme drought episodes, the mountainous terrain over the northern and eastern FC suffered the highest precipitation deficits, and these areas are, precisely, the most influenced by two of the major moisture sources, namely, the FC and eastern Mediterranean Sea. The decreased moisture contribution from these main sources led to more intense droughts over the region. As a result, both regions should be considered as hotspots to signal severe or extreme droughts in the region.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Streamlining the consent process for the implementation of offshore wind farms in Spain, considering existing regulation... Published: 01 May 2018
Ocean & Coastal Management, doi: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.02.014
Despite an extensive coastline and clear potential for the use of wind energy, the development of the offshore wind sector in Spain is currently in impasse. Environmental, technical, economic, social, and legal factors have all contributed to a failure to bring wind energy projects to fruition in any meaningful way. The main regulatory obstacles comprise excessively complex sets of procedures, with long deadlines and the involvement of numerous agencies. A lack of coordination between them has been reported to have caused significant delays and spiralling costs in the implementation of Offshore Wind Farm (OWF) projects in several States, which may well have discouraged investment by developers. This research contains an analysis of the consent procedures necessary to implement OWFs in Spain, and provides a comparative assessment of the systems of authorization used in other European countries with better track records in the development and implementation of offshore wind energy, with the overall aim of proposing regulatory improvements that could make the procedure for developers in Spain more “attractive”, thereby encouraging greater investment in offshore wind. In the first part of the article, the relevant characteristics of the various authorization procedures established in the domestic law of the leading European countries in terms of the development of offshore wind (the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany) are analysed on a scheme-by-scheme basis. The second part contains a discussion of the characteristics of the process of consent used in Spain followed by European Union (EU) recommended measures for improving consent processes for other energy projects (Ocean Energy projects and Projects of Common Interest). Finally, some alternatives are proposed focusing on improving the speed and efficiency of the authorization process used in Spain, taking as a reference the different regulatory systems followed by Comparative Law and EU recommended measures, and ending with a brief analysis of the influence that maritime spatial planning can have on Spanish consent process.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Development of Offshore Wind Power: Contrasting Optimal Wind Sites with Legal Restrictions in Galicia, Spain Published: 23 March 2018
Energies, doi: 10.3390/en11040731
Article 2 Reads 0 Citations The perfect pattern of moisture transport for precipitation for Arctic sea ice melting Published: 20 December 2017
Earth System Dynamics Discussions, doi: 10.5194/esd-2017-122
We have identified the patterns of moisture transport for precipitation over the Arctic region, the Arctic Ocean, and its 13 main subdomains, which better fit with sea ice decline. For this purpose, we studied the different patterns of moisture transport for the case of high/low Arctic sea ice (ASI) extension linked to periods before/after the main change point (CP) in the extension of sea ice. The pattern consists of a general decrease in moisture transport in summer and enhanced moisture transport in autumn and early winter, with different contributions depending on the moisture source and ocean subregion. The pattern is not only statistically significant but also consistent with Eulerian fluxes diagnosis, changes in the frequency of circulation types, and known mechanisms of the effects of snowfall or rainfall on ice in the Arctic. The results of this paper also reveal that the assumed and partially documented enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes as a consequence of increased moisture from climate change seems to be less simple and constant than typically recognized in relation to enhanced Arctic precipitation throughout the year in the present climate.