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Pius Lee   Dr.  Research or Laboratory Scientist 
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Pius Lee published an article in September 2017.
Top co-authors See all
Li Pan

515 shared publications

Hyuncheol Kim

85 shared publications

University of Maryland

Jianping Huang

48 shared publications

Weiwei Chen

46 shared publications

Youhua Tang

43 shared publications


Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2008 - 2017)
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BOOK-CHAPTER 1 Read 0 Citations Dynamic Coupling of the NMMB and CMAQ Models Through the U.S. National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) Pius Lee, Barry Baker, Daniel Tong, Li Pan, Dusan Jovic, Mar... Published: 15 September 2017
Springer Proceedings in Complexity, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57645-9_31
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An earth system modeling framework (ESMF) that enables unprecedented insight into the various aspects of the geophysical sciences of Planet Earth in an integrated and holistic manner is needed to study the physical phenomena of weather and climate. The ESMF concept has recently been promoted and elevated by multiple governmental agencies and institutions in the U.S.A. to unify a standard engineering practice and coding protocol in building geophysical model interfaces towards efficient dynamic coupling of earth models and deployment of earth modeling systems for operational services. This new capability is called the National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) (available at This project demonstrates the efficacy of using NUOPC as the software package to efficiently in-line, or 2-way couple at every synchronization time-step, the dust prediction capability of the U.S. National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC). The NAQFC in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operations comprises of an off-line coupled National Weather Service (NWS) North American Mesoscale-model (NAM) and the U.S. EPA Community Air Quality Multiscale Model (CMAQ). The limitation of the off-line coupled NAM-CMAQ is that NAM gives meteorological prediction to CMAQ hourly and uni-directionally. This project attempted a new coupling paradigm allowing NAM and CMAQ communicate with one another per synchronization time-step at roughly 5 min intervals uni-directionally or bi-directionally. In this project, the NUOPC protocol was tightly followed and the in-line NAM-CMAQ ability tested to forecast fine mode particulates concentration with earth-crustal origin. A strong dust storm occurred in the South Western U.S. on May 11 2014 was used as a test case for the NUOPC in-line NAM-CMAQ forecasting capability. The forecast performance for the test case was evaluated against measured surface concentration of fine particulate smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5).
BOOK-CHAPTER 1 Read 0 Citations Toward a Unified National Dust Modeling Capability Pius Lee, Daniel Tong, Youhua Tang, Li Pan Published: 15 September 2017
Springer Proceedings in Complexity, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57645-9_56
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This study aims to improve the NOAA Operational Dust Forecasting Capability. NOAA has developed and is operating the U.S. Dust Forecasting Capability (DFC) in concert with one of its core missions to build a “Weather Ready Nation”. The current DFC is based on the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model (Draxler et al. 2010). The NOAA DFC has been in operations since November 2011. DFC gives dust forecast in the form of hourly surface fine particulate (particle small than 2.5 m in diameter (PM2.5)) concentration out to 48 h covering the continental United States (CONUS). It is based on the HYSPLIT simulations made at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) (forecast available at The DFC real-time dust forecast is widely used to help assessing and mitigating dust storm impact on the society and the environment such as on human health (e.g., Valley Fever), air and ground transportation safety, local economy such as estate value depreciation, and climate change. This study leverages the superiority of the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) meteorological model. HRRR is a 3 km horizontal resolution regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for the CONUS, run operationally at NCEP. HRRR is proposed to provide the meteorology for the DFC. We propose to develop, test, and possibly select among several wind-blown dust emission schemes for the DFC dust-emission modeling. We considered the in-line emission modules in HRRR and the FENGSHA-CMAQ (the U.S. EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality model) windblown-dust module in the operational National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC). The FENGSHA-CMAQ version 5.1’s wind-blown dust emission and diffusion module provides the initial wind-blown dust uptake and airborne suspension from the surface by using the surface wind from HRRR, and the HRRR low layer meteorology determines transport and turbulent mixing for the dust. These emission schemes are tested and evaluated over severe dust storms in the Western U.S. on May 11 2014.
Article 1 Read 6 Citations NAQFC Developmental Forecast Guidance for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) Jeffery McQueen, Ivanka Stajner, Li Pan, Youhua Tang, Shobha... Published: 01 February 2017
Weather and Forecasting, doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-15-0163.1
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CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 1 Read 0 Citations Impact of Wildfires on Atmospheric Ammonia Concentrations in the US: Coupling Satellite and Ground Based Measurements Casey Bray, William Battye, Viney Aneja, Daniel Tong, Pius L... Published: 15 July 2016
The 1st International Electronic Conference on Atmospheric Sciences, doi: 10.3390/ecas2016-B001
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Gaseous ammonia plays a crucial role in the earth’s atmosphere. Major sources of atmospheric ammonia include agriculture and fires. As the climate continues to change, the pattern of fires across the US will also change, leading to changes in ammonia emissions. This study examines four major science questions using satellite and in-situ data from 2010–2014: (1) How have concentrations of ammonia changed across the US? (2) How have the strength and frequency of fires changed? (3) How has this change in fires impacted ammonia emissions? (4) How does the US EPA NEI compare with the calculated emissions? Satellite and in-situ data were used to evaluate the annual concentrations of ammonia and to calculate the total ammonia emissions across the continental US. The results of this study showed that ammonia concentrations have slightly increased over the five-year period. The total fire number and the average fire radiative power have decreased, while the total yearly burn area has increased. The calculated ammonia emissions from fires on a national scale show an increasing trend and when compared with the US EPA NEI for ammonia emissions from fires, annual ammonia emissions are, on average, a factor of 0.49 higher than the NEI.

BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 1 Citation Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) Using a Regional Air Quality Application for Evaluation Pius Lee, Robert Atlas, Gregory Carmichael, Youhua Tang, Bra... Published: 01 January 2016
Springer Proceedings in Complexity, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-24478-5_97
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BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Intensive Campaigns Supported by Air Quality Forecasting Capability to Identify Chemical and Atmospheric Regimes Suscept... Pius Lee, Li Pan, Hyuncheol Kim, Daniel Tong Published: 01 January 2014
Springer Proceedings in Complexity, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-04379-1_97
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The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has started a series of regional scale multiple platform field measurement intensives between 2011 and 2014. These measurement campaigns are collectively called the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) project. The emphasis of spatial collocation of multiple space-, air- and ground-based measurements facilitate the characterization of the vertical distribution of various air pollutants. During the January 16 to February 8, 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV), California, one of the frontier science questions addressed concerned the frequent wintertime Particulate Matter (PM) standard violation over SJV and its vicinities. This study represents our contribution of real-time air quality forecasting to support flight-planning during the campaign as well as post analysis and model evaluation for some of the air pollutants. Two sets of real-time forecasts based on a coupled National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Model (NAM) and the U.S. EPA Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) are included in the study: (1) a 12 km horizontal resolution domain over the Conterminous U.S., and (2) a 4 km resolutiondomain over the SJV and its adjacent areas nested-in from (1) as its parent. During the campaign there were several episodes of high surface PM concentration in the lowest hundreds of meters over SJV. We performed post-analyses of meteorological parameters such as the planetary boundary height and of chemical characteristics such as verification of modeled concentration of PM components at surface levels. Comparisons of the performance of the two forecasts will shed insight on horizontal resolution requirement to capture the meteorology and chemistry characteristics in SJV air quality modeling. These analyses will aid policy and regulatory relevant decisions as well as assist in improving the model for future applications.