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Jeffrey K. Griffiths  - - - 
Top co-authors See all
Christopher Duggan

188 shared publications

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA

Elena N. Naumova

174 shared publications

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA;(G.S.);(K.K.H.C.)

S. Tzipori

141 shared publications

Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton

Anura V Kurpad

119 shared publications

Department of Physiology, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, India

Tinku Thomas

77 shared publications

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, St. John's Research Institute, Bengaluru, India

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Distribution of Articles published per year 
(1998 - 2018)
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12
 
Publications See all
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Unsafe Drinking Water Is Associated with Environmental Enteric Dysfunction and Poor Growth Outcomes in Young Children in... Jacqueline M. Lauer, Christopher P. Duggan, Lynne M. Ausman,... Published: 22 October 2018
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0143
DOI See at publisher website PubMed View at PubMed ABS Show/hide abstract
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of the small intestine, and poor growth are associated with living in poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions, but specific risk factors remain unclear. Nested within a birth cohort study, this study investigates relationships among water quality, EED, and growth in 385 children living in southwestern Uganda. Water quality was assessed using a portable water quality test when children were 6 months, and safe water was defined as lacking Escherichia coli contamination. Environmental enteric dysfunction was assessed using the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test at 12–16 months. Anthropometry and covariate data were extracted from the cohort study, and associations were assessed using linear and logistic regression models. Less than half of the households (43.8%) had safe water, and safe versus unsafe water did not correlate with improved versus unimproved water source. In adjusted linear regression models, children from households with safe water had significantly lower log-transformed (ln) L:M ratios (β: −0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.44, −0.00) and significantly higher length-for-age (β: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.58) and weight-for-age (β: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.34) Z-scores at 12–16 months. Furthermore, in adjusted linear regression models, ln L:M ratios at 12–16 months significantly decreased with increasing length-for-age Z-scores at birth, 6 months, and 9 months (β: −0.05, 95% CI: −0.10, −0.004; β: −0.06, 95% CI: −0.11, −0.006; and β: −0.05, 95% CI: −0.09, −0.005, respectively). Overall, our data suggest that programs seeking to improve nutrition should address poor WASH conditions simultaneously, particularly related to household drinking water quality.
Article 0 Reads 2 Citations Expectoration of Cryptosporidium Parasites in Sputum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Positive and –Negative Adults Siobhan M. Mor, Luke R. Ascolillo, Ritah Nakato, Grace Ndeez... Published: 05 February 2018
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0741
DOI See at publisher website PubMed View at PubMed ABS Show/hide abstract
Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is thought to be a rare, end-stage complication of HIV. Few studies have systematically examined the frequency of such infection in adults. Sputum specimens submitted for tuberculosis (TB) testing at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, were anonymously retested for Cryptosporidium using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Visual confirmation using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was performed for a subset of PCR-positive samples. Of 824 sputum samples tested, 24 (2.9%) were Cryptosporidium positive. Prevalence in sputum ranged between 0% and 10% in each month of the study and exceeded TB prevalence in some months. In this referral population, respiratory Cryptosporidium prevalence was lower in people with HIV (1.3% versus 4.4% without HIV, P = 0.028) and higher in those with TB (6.8% versus 2.6% without TB, P = 0.086). The weak association between respiratory Cryptosporidium infection and TB persisted after controlling for HIV (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 11.8; P = 0.080). This is the first study to document adult respiratory tract cryptosporidiosis in a referral population with presumed TB. These findings 1) confirm that Cryptosporidium respiratory infection occurs in HIV-negative and -positive adults; 2) suggest there is potential for Cryptosporidium to be disseminated or transmitted by coughing or expectoration; and 3) identify possible synergy between Cryptosporidium and TB in the respiratory tract.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Duration of programme exposure is associated with improved outcomes in nutrition and health: the case for longer project... Laurie C. Miller, Neena Joshi, Mahendra Lohani, Beatrice Rog... Published: 28 September 2016
Journal of Development Effectiveness, doi: 10.1080/19439342.2016.1231706
DOI See at publisher website
Article 0 Reads 7 Citations Head growth of undernourished children in rural Nepal: Association with demographics, health and diet Laurie C. Miller, Neena Joshi, Mahendra Lohani, Rupa Singh, ... Published: 29 January 2016
Paediatrics and International Child Health, doi: 10.1080/20469047.2015.1133517
DOI See at publisher website PubMed View at PubMed
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Childhood Threats to Adult Cognition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Malaria, Anemia, Stunting, Enteric Enteropathy, and the Micr... Jeffrey K. Griffiths, Joyce K. Kikafunda Published: 01 January 2015
Brain Degeneration and Dementia in Sub-Saharan Africa, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2456-1_7
DOI See at publisher website
Article 0 Reads 25 Citations Reliability and validity of the center for epidemiologic studies-depression scale in screening for depression among HIV-... Barnabas K Natamba, Jane Achan, Angela Arbach, Thomas O Oyok... Published: 22 November 2014
BMC Psychiatry, doi: 10.1186/s12888-014-0303-y
DOI See at publisher website PubMed View at PubMed ABS Show/hide abstract
There are limited data on the prevalence and approaches to screening for depression among pregnant women living in resource poor settings with high HIV burden. We studied the reliability and accuracy of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale in 123 (36 HIV-infected and 87 -uninfected) pregnant women receiving antenatal care at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. CES-D scores were compared to results from the psychiatrist-administered Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for current major depressive disorder (MDD), a “gold standard” for assessing depression. We employed measures of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and criterion validity [Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and positive predictive value (PPV)] to evaluate the reliability and validity of the CES-D scale. 35.8% of respondents were currently experiencing an MDD, as defined from outputs of the MINI-depression module. The CES-D had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92) and good discriminatory ability in detecting MINI-defined current MDDs (AUROC = 0.82). The optimum CES-D cutoff score for the identification of probable MDD was between 16 and 17. A CES-D cutoff score of 17, corresponding to Se, Sp, and PPV values of 72.7%, 78.5%, and 76.5%, is proposed for adoption in this population and performs well for HIV-infected and -uninfected women. After adjusting for baseline differences between the HIV subgroups (maternal age and marital status), HIV-infected pregnant women scored 6.2 points higher on the CES-D than HIV-uninfected women (p = 0.032). The CES-D is a suitable instrument for screening for probable major depression among pregnant women of mixed HIV status attending antenatal services in northern Uganda. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12888-014-0303-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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