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Roman Výleta  - - - 
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(2014 - 2018)
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PROCEEDINGS-ARTICLE 4 Reads 0 Citations Continuous simulation of catchment runoff in flood frequency analysis: a case study from Slovakia Peter Valent, Roman Výleta Published: 15 November 2018
Proceedings of 3rd International Electronic Conference on Water Sciences (ECWS-3), doi: 10.3390/ecws-3-05828
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Research questions related to a reliable estimate of flood discharges has always interested both hydrologists and civil engineers. Over the decades numerous methods have been proposed and used more or less successfully, all of them with known limitations restricting their use to a wide range of conditions and problems. In the past, the characteristics of hydrological extremes were mostly estimated by the methods of statistical analyses. As this type of methods is not suitable to estimate design discharges of high return periods, and by default does not account for uncertainty, a new family of methods is slowly taking place of the traditional approaches. Many of these methods are based on a combination of stochastic rainfall models (weather generators) and rainfall-runoff models, which enables to generate an arbitrary number of synthetic floods even in places with short or no records of river discharges available. In addition, as this type of methods produces flood hydrographs, they can also be used in a multivariate flood frequency analysis to estimate joint probabilities of two or more flood characteristics. This study presents a methodology for flood frequency analysis that combines stochastic models of both rainfall amounts and air temperatures with a lumped rainfall-runoff model to transfer the outputs of the stochastic models into a series of corresponding river discharges. Both of the stochastic models are single-site weather generators that produce continuous time series of mean areal daily rainfall amounts and air temperatures. In this study, the method was used to generate a time series of 10,000 years of mean daily discharges, which was used to build a flood frequency curve and to estimate extreme flood discharges of given return periods. The method was applied to a mountainous catchment of the River Váh in Slovakia.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Monitoring and Assessment of Water Retention Measures in Agricultural Land Roman Výleta, Michaela Danáčová, Andrej Škrinár, Róbert Fenc... Published: 21 December 2017
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/95/2/022008
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One of the most interesting events, from the environmental impact point of view, is the huge storm rainfall at which soil degradation processes occur. In Slovakia, agricultural areas with a higher slope have been recently increasingly denudated by water erosion processes. Areas having regular problems with muddy floods and denudation of soil particles have been currently identified. This phenomenon has long-term adverse consequences in the agricultural landscape, especially the decline in soil fertility, the influence on soil type and the reduction of depth of the soil profile. In the case of storm rainfall or long-term precipitation, soil particles are being transported and deposited at the foot of the slope, but in many cases the large amounts of sediment are transported by water in the form of muddy floods, while putting settlements and industrial zones at risk, along with contamination and clogging of watercourses and water reservoirs. These unfavourable phenomena may be prevented by appropriate management and application of technical measures, such as water level ditches, erosion-control weirs, terraces and others. The study deals with determination of the soil loss and denudation of soil particles caused by water erosion, as well as with determination of the volume of the surface runoff created by the regional torrential rains in the area of the village of Sobotište. The research is based on the analysis of flood and erosion-control measures implemented in this area. Monitoring of these level ditches for protection against muddy floods has been carried out since 2015 using UAV technology and terrestrial laser scanning. Monitoring is aimed on determination of the volume of the ditch, changes in its capacity and shape in each year. The study evaluates both the effectiveness of these measures to reduce the surface runoff as well as the amount of eroded soil particles depending on climatological conditions. The results of the research point to the good efficiency of these measures; however, in conjunction with belt crops cultivation they could form a comprehensive flood and erosion-control protection to eliminate the muddy floods and protect the settlements from surrounding slopes.
Article 1 Read 0 Citations Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment Michaela Danáčová, Peter Valent, Roman Výleta Published: 21 December 2017
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/95/2/022016
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Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity of 5 mm/min was used to irrigate a corrupted soil sample. The experiment was undertaken for several different slopes, under the condition of no vegetation cover. The results of the rainfall simulation experiment complied with the expectations of a strong relationship between the slope gradient, and the amount of surface runoff generated. The experiments with higher slope gradients were characterised by larger volumes of surface runoff generated, and by shorter times after which it occurred. The experiments with rainfall simulators in both laboratory and field conditions play an important role in better understanding of runoff generation processes. The results of such small scale experiments could be used to estimate some of the parameters of complex hydrological models, which are used to model rainfall-runoff and erosion processes at catchment scale.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Optimizing Use of Water Management Systems during Changes of Hydrological Conditions Roman Výleta, Andrej Škrinár, Michaela Danáčová, Peter Valen... Published: 01 October 2017
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/245/3/032075
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When designing the water management systems and their components, there is a need of more detail research on hydrological conditions of the river basin, runoff of which creates the main source of water in the reservoir. Over the lifetime of the water management systems the hydrological time series are never repeated in the same form which served as the input for the design of the system components. The design assumes the observed time series to be representative at the time of the system use. However, it is rather unrealistic assumption, because the hydrological past will not be exactly repeated over the design lifetime. When designing the water management systems, the specialists may occasionally face the insufficient or oversized capacity design, possibly wrong specification of the management rules which may lead to their non-optimal use. It is therefore necessary to establish a comprehensive approach to simulate the fluctuations in the interannual runoff (taking into account the current dry and wet periods) in the form of stochastic modelling techniques in water management practice. The paper deals with the methodological procedure of modelling the mean monthly flows using the stochastic Thomas-Fiering model, while modification of this model by Wilson-Hilferty transformation of independent random number has been applied. This transformation usually applies in the event of significant asymmetry in the observed time series. The methodological procedure was applied on the data acquired at the gauging station of Horné Orešany in the Parná Stream. Observed mean monthly flows for the period of 1.11.1980 - 31.10.2012 served as the model input information. After extrapolation the model parameters and Wilson-Hilferty transformation parameters the synthetic time series of mean monthly flows were simulated. Those have been compared with the observed hydrological time series using basic statistical characteristics (e. g. mean, standard deviation and skewness) for testing the quality of the model simulation. The synthetic hydrological series of monthly flows were created having the same statistical properties as the time series observed in the past. The compiled model was able to take into account the diversity of extreme hydrological situations in a form of synthetic series of mean monthly flows, while the occurrence of a set of flows was confirmed, which could and may occur in the future. The results of stochastic modelling in the form of synthetic time series of mean monthly flows, which takes into account the seasonal fluctuations of runoff within the year, could be applicable in engineering hydrology (e. g. for optimum use of the existing water management system that is related to reassessment of economic risks of the system).
Article 1 Read 6 Citations A regional comparative analysis of empirical and theoretical flood peak-volume relationships Ján Szolgay, Ladislav Gaál, Tomáš Bacigál, Silvia Kohnová, K... Published: 01 December 2016
Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, doi: 10.1515/johh-2016-0042
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This paper analyses the bivariate relationship between flood peaks and corresponding flood event volumes modelled by empirical and theoretical copulas in a regional context, with a focus on flood generation processes in general, the regional differentiation of these and the effect of the sample size on reliable discrimination among models. A total of 72 catchments in North-West of Austria are analysed for the period 1976–2007. From the hourly runoff data set, 25 697 flood events were isolated and assigned to one of three flood process types: synoptic floods (including long- and short-rain floods), flash floods or snowmelt floods (both rain-on-snow and snowmelt floods). The first step of the analysis examines whether the empirical peak-volume copulas of different flood process types are regionally statistically distinguishable, separately for each catchment and the role of the sample size on the strength of the statements. The results indicate that the empirical copulas of flash floods tend to be different from those of the synoptic and snowmelt floods. The second step examines how similar are the empirical flood peak-volume copulas between catchments for a given flood type across the region. Empirical copulas of synoptic floods are the least similar between the catchments, however with the decrease of the sample size the difference between the performances of the process types becomes small. The third step examines the goodness-of-fit of different commonly used copula types to the data samples that represent the annual maxima of flood peaks and the respective volumes both regardless of flood generating processes (the traditional engineering approach) and also considering the three process-based classes. Extreme value copulas (Galambos, Gumbel and Hüsler-Reiss) show the best performance both for synoptic and flash floods, while the Frank copula shows the best performance for snowmelt floods. It is concluded that there is merit in treating flood types separately when analysing and estimating flood peak-volume dependence copulas; however, even the enlarged dataset gained by the process-based analysis in this study does not give sufficient information for a reliable model choice for multivariate statistical analysis of flood peaks and volumes.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Similarity of empirical copulas of flood peak-volume relationships: a regional case study of North-West Austria Ladislav Gaál, Ján Szolgay, Tomáš Bacigál, Silvia Kohnová, K... Published: 01 September 2016
Contributions to Geophysics and Geodesy, doi: 10.1515/congeo-2016-0011
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This paper analyses the bivariate relationship between flood peaks and corresponding flood event volumes modelled by empirical copulas in a regional context in the North-West of Austria. Flood data of a total of 69 catchments in the region are analysed for the period 1976–2007. In order to increase the sample size and the homogeneity of the samples for the statistical analysis, 24872 hydrologically independent flood events were isolated and assigned to one of three flood process types: synoptic floods, flash floods or snowmelt floods in contrary to the more traditional engineering approach of selecting annual maxima of flood peaks and corresponding flood volumes. The first major part of the paper examines whether the empirical peak-volume copulas of different flood process types are statistically distinguishable, separately for each catchment. The results indicate that the empirical copulas of flash floods tend to be different from those of the synoptic and snowmelt floods in the target region. The second part examines how similar are the empirical flood peak-volume copulas between catchments for a given flood type. For the majority of catchment pairs, the empirical copulas of all flood types are indeed statistically similar. The flash floods show the largest degree of spatial heterogeneity. It is concluded that there is merit in treating flood types separately and in pooling events of the same type in a region when analysing and estimating flood peak-volume dependence copulas; however, the sample size of the analysed events is a limiting factor in spite of the introduced event selection procedure.
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