Distribution of Articles published per year
(1974 - 2018)
(1974 - 2018)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Exploring links between greenspace and sudden unexpected death: A spatial analysis Published: 01 April 2018
Environment International, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.021
Greenspace has been increasingly recognized as having numerous health benefits. However, its effects are unknown concerning sudden unexpected death (SUD), commonly referred to as sudden cardiac death, which constitutes a large proportion of mortality in the United States. Because greenspace can promote physical activity, reduce stress and buffer air pollutants, it may have beneficial effects for people at risk of SUD, such as those with heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Using several spatial techniques, this study explored the relationship between SUD and greenspace. We adjudicated 396 SUD cases that occurred from March 2013 to February 2015 among reports from emergency medical services (EMS) that attended out-of-hospital deaths in Wake County (central North Carolina, USA). We measured multiple greenspace metrics in each census tract, including the percentages of forest, grassland, average tree canopy, tree canopy diversity, near-road tree canopy and greenway density. The associations between SUD incidence and these greenspace metrics were examined using Poisson regression (non-spatial) and Bayesian spatial models. The results from both models indicated that SUD incidence was inversely associated with both greenway density (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 0.82, 95% credible/ confidence interval [CI]: 0.69–0.97) and the percentage of forest (adjusted RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.81–0.99). These results suggest that increases in greenway density by 1 km/km2 and in forest by 10% were associated with a decrease in SUD risk of 18% and 10%, respectively. The inverse relationship was not observed between SUD incidence and other metrics, including grassland, average tree canopy, near-road tree canopy and tree canopy diversity. This study implies that greenspace, specifically greenways and forest, may have beneficial effects for people at risk of SUD. Further studies are needed to investigate potential causal relationships between greenspace and SUD, and potential mechanisms such as promoting physical activity and reducing stress.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Inverse relationship between urban green space and childhood autism in California elementary school districts Published: 01 October 2017
Environment International, doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.010
Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy. Their associations with autism prevalence were evaluated with negative binomial regression models and spatial regression models. We observed inverse associations between several green space metrics and autism prevalence in school districts with high road density, the highly urbanized areas, but not in others. According to negative binomial regression models, adjusted rate ratios (RR) for the relationships in these school districts between autism prevalence and green space metrics in 10% increments were as follows: for forest, RR=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.95); for grassland, RR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97); for average tree canopy, RR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and for near-road tree canopy, RR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91). These results suggest that increases of 10% in forest, grassland, average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy are associated with a decrease in autism prevalence of 10%, 10% 11% and 19%, respectively. In contrast, urban land and road density were positively associated with autism prevalence. The results of spatial regression models were consistent with those obtained by negative binomial models, except for grassland. Our study suggests that green space, specifically tree cover in areas with high road density, may influence autism prevalence in elementary school children beneficially. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential causal relationship, and the major mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial associations with green space, such as buffering traffic-related air pollution and noise.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Reimagining Undergraduate Health and Social Care Education: A Workforce Fit for Purpose in a Changing Landscape of Care.... Published: 21 September 2017
Illness, Crisis & Loss, doi: 10.1177/1054137317727102
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations 12-lipoxygenase inhibitor improves functions of cytokine-treated human islets and type 2 diabetic islets Published: 10 May 2017
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-00267
Article 0 Reads 3 Citations Sequential adaptive changes in a c-Myc-driven model of hepatocellular carcinoma Published: 21 April 2017
Journal of Biological Chemistry, doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.782052
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer that frequently overexpresses the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein. Using a mouse model of Myc-induced HCC, we studied the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular changes accompanying HCC progression, regression, and recurrence. These involved altered rates of pyruvate and fatty acid β-oxidation and the likely re-directing of glutamine into biosynthetic rather than energy-generating pathways. Initial tumors also showed reduced mitochondrial mass and differential contributions of electron transport chain complexes I and II to respiration. The uncoupling of complex II's electron transport function from its succinate dehydrogenase activity also suggested a mechanism by which Myc generates reactive oxygen species. RNA sequence studies revealed an orderly progression of transcriptional changes involving pathways pertinent to DNA damage repair, cell cycle progression, insulin-like growth factor signaling, innate immunity, and further metabolic re-programming. Only a subset of functions deregulated in initial tumors was similarly deregulated in recurrent tumors thereby indicating that the latter can “normalize” some behaviors to suit their needs. An interactive and freely available software tool was developed to allow continued analyses of these and other transcriptional profiles. Collectively, these studies define the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular events accompanyingHCCevolution, regression, and recurrence in the absence of any potentially confounding therapies.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Repair of Cleft Sternum Published: 01 January 2017
Chest Wall Deformities, doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-53088-7_60
Complete and partial cleft sternum requires either primary repair, or repair by bridging the gap using native musculoskeletal tissue or synthetic material. When performed early in the first few months of life primary closure is usually achievable. Late reconstruction, when the chest wall is less compliant, requires additional manoeuvres in order to accommodate and protect the vital organs within the thoracic cavity.