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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Benchmarks for environmental impact of housing in Europe: Definition of archetypes and LCA of the residential building s... Published: 01 November 2018
Building and Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.09.008
The study describes the results of a full LCA applied to 24 statistically-based dwelling archetypes, representative of the EU housing stock in 2010. The aim is to quantify the average environmental impacts related to housing in Europe and to define reference values (baseline scenario) for policies development. The average environmental impacts has been calculated accounting for the number of dwellings (clustered per typology, year of construction and climate zone) related to each representative model. System boundaries include production, construction, use (energy and water consumption), maintenance/replacement, and end-of-life phases of each dwelling. The environmental life cycle impact assessment is carried out using the ILCD method. EU average annual environmental impact per person, per dwelling and per m2 were calculated. Results show that the average life cycle greenhouse gases emissions related to housing per person per year are 2.62 t CO2eq and related to a representative dwelling per year are of 6.36 t CO2eq. The use phase (energy and water consumption) is the most relevant one, followed by the production of construction materials and by replacement operations. Single-family houses are responsible for the highest share of impacts from housing in Europe. The same type of building has different impacts in different climatic zones, especially because of differences in the need for space heating. In general, electricity use and space heating are the activities that contribute the most to the overall impacts. The overall results could be used as a baseline scenario for testing eco-innovation scenarios for impact reduction and for setting targets.
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Food waste accounting along global and European food supply chains: State of the art and outlook Published: 01 September 2018
Waste Management, doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.07.032
Contributing to environmental pollution and resources depletion, food waste represents a considerable inefficiency of the global food system. Within the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 12.3, countries committed to halve per-capita food waste generated at retail and consumer levels and to decrease food waste along the food supply chain by 2030. Reliable and detailed information on food waste is of utmost importance for the actors of the food supply chain, organizations and governments willing to implement and monitor effective reduction strategies. The present paper is a review of existing studies on food waste generation at the global and European scales and aims primarily at describing and comparing the approaches adopted, and secondarily at analysing their potential in supporting food waste related European interventions and policies. Ten studies were selected among relevant scientific papers and grey literature and their underlying quantification methodologies were systematically analysed. Methodological elements discussed in the paper include type of waste streams captured by estimations, distinction between edible and inedible food waste along the agro-food supply chain, reported units of measure, overall inefficiencies of the food system, and uncertainty of data. Current estimations of food loss and waste generation range between 194–389 kg per person per year at the global scale, and between 158–298 kg per person per year at the European scale. However, further efforts are needed to improve their level of detail and reliability and to foster their support to food loss and waste-related strategies.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Bio-Economy Contribution to Circular Economy Published: 04 July 2018
Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6_6
European policies are advocating a transition toward “bio-economy”, an economy aiming at reducing the dependence from fossil-based resources, limiting greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts, safeguarding food security and ensuring a sustainable economic growth. Besides, circular economy policies are aiming at closing the loop of resources as much as possible. The application of circular economy principles to bio-economy could represent a valuable contribution to bio-economy performance optimisation. The present paper investigates the contribution of bio-economy to circular economy. It proposes a conceptual framework to assess the potential for circularity for bio-waste and related by-products and it puts forward some considerations on the application of this framework to food waste. However, both bio-economy and circular economy may imply environmental burdens if an integrated assessment encompassing all life cycle stages of production and consumption is missing. Hence, adopting life cycle assessment is crucial to unveil trade-offs and ensuring identifying the best options for bio-economy and circular economy implementation.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Improving Interpretation, Presentation and Visualisation of LCA Studies for Decision Making Support Published: 04 July 2018
Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6_37
Interpretation, presentation, and visualization of life cycle assessment (LCA) results are key steps for ensuring proper decision support. Despite the interpretation being a crucial step, it is often not performed in a systematic way. For example, sensitivity analysis, variability and uncertainties analyses, comparison with results coming from different disciplines and domains are not properly done. So far, numerous LCA studies have been published and are often used by decision makers (both in business and policy contexts) to support the identification of hotspots or for drawing conclusions from meta-reviews while missing a good interpretation. Moreover, improving current practices in the visualisation of the results may help both the interpretation and the communication of LCA by a broader audience.
Article 0 Reads 2 Citations Techno-economic and profitability analysis of food waste biorefineries at European level Published: 01 July 2018
Bioresource Technology, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.016
Food waste represents a potential source to produce value-added materials replacing the use of virgin ones. However, the use of food waste as feedstock in biorefineries is still at an early stage of development and studies assessing its economic viability at large scale are lacking in the literature. This paper presents a techno-economic and profitability analysis of four food waste biorefineries that use wastes from tomato, potato, orange, and olive processing as feedstock. The study includes the assessment of potentially available quantity of those waste flows in Europe. Due to the low technology readiness level of this kind of biorefineries, a screening methodology to estimate the investment and manufacturing costs as well as two profitability ratios (the return on investment and the payback time) was adopted. Results show that not all the waste feedstock have the same potential and that the most profitable options are those related to implementing fewer plants, namely concentrating the production and capitalising on economies of scale.
DATASET 0 Reads 0 Citations Planetary Boundaries and Chemical Pollution: A Grail Quest? Published: 01 March 2018
ENERGYO, doi: 10.1515/energyo.0017.00012