Distribution of Articles published per year
(1999 - 2018)
(1999 - 2018)
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BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Convergence Phenomenon Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_5
Unnecessary and low-priority emergency relief items offered to those who have suffered a natural or man-made disaster have been a perpetual problem across the globe. The spontaneous and often unsolicited flow of supplies to disaster-affected areas from non-affected locations pose a serious obstacle for effective emergency relief operations. This chapter deals exclusively with three types of post-disaster convergence phenomena: personal, informational, and material. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of convergence, along with typology and effects of each phenomenon on disaster relief activities, are discussed. Among the three types, convergence of material has a relatively long history compared to the other two. Material convergence has four overlapping categories which are examined before providing several recommendations to either slow or completely stop the flow of unwanted and unnecessary emergency items to disaster sites.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Response to and Emergency Relief Efforts for the Selected Disasters Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_4
Since the beginning of this century, more than 100 major natural and man-made disasters occurred in different parts of the world. Each one of these disasters was followed by a massive emergency relief operation that lasted months. Five of these operations have been selected to evaluate the effectiveness of each one of them by exploring weaknesses and strengths of each selected operation. In doing so, basic statistics associated with each selected disasters, and domestic and international response, along with economic, health, and other impacts, are discussed. The selected disasters are: the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2005 Kashmir Earthquake, 2010 Haiti Earthquake, and 2017 Famine in South Sudan. Although each relief effort was confronted with unique challenges and problems, and achieved varying degree of success, there are many commonalities among their operations. The information presented in this chapter is essential for improving both public and private response to future disaster relief operations. Additionally, each of the operation considered in this chapter is fundamental for understanding the dynamics of the relief process.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Disaster Relief Provision Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_3
Providing examples from many past relief operations conducted in both developed and developing countries, this chapter presents major undesirable aspects of disaster relief disbursement. A clear understanding of these aspects is necessary for emergency managers and planners to improve their capability and performance in future disaster relief operations. These aspects are not completely new to the environmental hazard and disaster researchers because the inherent weaknesses of relief disbursement are closely associated with a several key concepts/traditions (e.g., vulnerability, political-ecological paradigm, and participatory exclusion) of the subfield. After briefly discussing these concepts, crucial aspects of disaster relief disbursement, such as biased relief distribution, and timeliness and misuse/non-use of disaster relief, are presented. Biased distribution is typically caused because of the income, age, gender, religious and ethnic affiliation, and immigration status of disaster survivors as well as region- and area-specific relief distribution. How to evaluate effectiveness of disaster relief distribution is presented next, and finally determinants of disaster relief at the country and individual/household levels are covered.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Conclusion Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_6
The final chapter outlines the experience and lessons learned from past global disaster relief operations. The evidence presented in this book clearly suggests that disaster relief actors either have not learned from the past experience or new knowledge is short-lived. As a result, no noticeable progress has been observed in the quality of disaster efforts administered in recent decades. After listing several important events that occurred in disaster relief arena to foster coordination and cooperation among many national and international actors involved in emergency relief efforts, this chapter focuses on problems and challenges confronted by past relief operations. Based on these challenges, recommendations are made to improve future disaster relief efforts. Finally, research gaps in disaster relief operations are identified and future research should pursue to fill these gaps.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Channeling Disaster Aid: Process and Problems Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_2
Disaster relief focuses on meeting immediate basic needs of survivors of extreme events and enhancing both the short- and long-term disaster recovery processes. Channeling aid to those who have suffered from a disaster is full of complexities. This chapter explores these complexities, understanding of which can facilitate a quick return to pre-disaster life so that the disaster survivors do not have to depend on relief aid for an extended period. This chapter starts by describing the processes of how disaster aid and emergency supplies flow from a plethora of sources (e.g., private, public, humanitarian, business, and nonprofit organizations, as well as individuals from both affected and non-affected areas/countries) to survivors of major extreme natural events. This chapter also covers other essential and relevant information such as providers and distributors of emergency aid, reasons for making donations, ways to improve humanitarian logistics, as well as the advantages and shortcomings of participation by domestic and foreign military forces in disaster relief operations. Because major relief operations have increasingly been attended by many organizations and personnel, coordination has become a dire problem in the disbursement of disaster relief. Attempts have been made over the last decades to improve coordination and partnership by establishing/developing new entities and assessment tools like Cluster Approach, Good Humanitarian Donorship, and Post-disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA). These topics are presented and the final section of this chapter deals with how social networks facilitate disaster relief efforts.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Introduction Published: 08 May 2018
Disaster Relief Aid, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77282-0_1
Survivors of natural and man-made disasters in both developed and developing countries not only need, expect, or receive relief from outside sources to mitigate impacts of extreme events; they also often become proactive within their communities and beyond in terms of building networks and providing assistance to other survivors. Disaster relief represents a response that demands an immediate action to alleviate suffering of survivors and save lives. The primary objective of this introductory chapter is to provide a description of salient features of disaster relief operations conducted across the globe over the past several decades. After introductory comments, the chapter begins with a brief chronicle of the development of major global humanitarian agencies and assistance programs, along with emergence of humanitarianism and volunteerism, which are closely associated with humanitarian assistance. The next section of this chapter summarizes major criticisms of disaster aid provision and also outlines the need for disbursement of assistance to disaster survivors. This is accomplished in part by providing several definitions of natural disasters wherein the need for emergency relief aid for survivors of extreme natural events is either explicit or embedded. The chapter ends with the book’s objectives and chapter outline.