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(1970 - 2017)
(1970 - 2017)
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in horses in different Moroccan regions Published: 12 September 2017
Veterinary Medicine and Science, doi: 10.1002/vms3.71
West Nile virus-associated disease is one of the most widespread vector-borne diseases in the world. In Morocco, the first cases were reported in horses in 1996 and the disease re-emerged in 2003 and in 2010. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological situation of WNV-associated infection in Morocco, by quantifying the seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG antibodies in horses in different bioclimatic regions-zones of Morocco in 2011. During the months of May, June and July 2011, 840 serum samples were collected from horses in four regions characterized by different environmental and climatic features such as altitude, temperature and precipitation. These environmental-climatic regions are: the Atlantic plateaus of the Gharb and pre-Rif region, the North Atlasic plains and plateaus region, the Atlas Mountains and pre-Atlas region and the plains and plateaus of the Oriental region. All samples were tested for the anti-WNV IgG antibodies by ELISA and positive sera were confirmed by virus neutralization (VN). An anti-WNV antibody prevalence map was developed. A total of 261 samples (31%) were found positive by both techniques. The prevalence of the infection was higher in the Atlantic plateaus of the Gharb and pre-Rif region, in the northern part of the country. Available data concerning the previous WNV-associated disease outbreaks in Morocco and the preliminary results of this serological survey suggest that the Moroccan northwest is the region at highest risk for WNV circulation. In this region, the climate is more humid with higher rainfall than other regions and milder winter temperatures exist. In the same area, the presence of migratory bird settlements may affect the risk of virus introduction and amplification.
Conference 2 Reads 0 Citations Longer-Lasting Episodes in the 2015 Ozone Season in Italy in Comparison with Recent Years Published: 16 July 2016
The 1st International Electronic Conference on Atmospheric Sciences, doi: 10.3390/ecas2016-b005
Article 0 Reads 3 Citations Outbreak of unusual Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 1,4 ,12:i:-, Italy, June 2013 to Septe... Published: 14 April 2016
Eurosurveillance, doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.es.2016.21.15.30194
Monophasic variant of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (monophasic S. Typhimurium), with antigenic structure 1,4,,12:i:-, appears to be of increasing importance in Europe. In Italy, monophasic S. Typhimurium represented the third most frequent Salmonella serovar isolated from human cases between 2004 and 2008. From June 2013 to October 2014, a total of 206 human cases of salmonellosis were identified in Abruzzo region (Central Italy). Obtained clinical isolates characterised showed S. Typhimurium 1,4,,12:i:- with sole resistance to nalidixic acid, which had never been observed in Italy in monophasic S. Typhimurium, neither in humans nor in animals or foods. Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were conducted to try to identify the outbreak source. Cases were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire and microbiological tests were performed on human as well as environmental samples, including samples from fruit and vegetables, pigs, and surface water. Investigation results did not identify the final vehicle of human infection, although a link between the human cases and the contamination of irrigation water channels was suggested.
Article 1 Read 8 Citations Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe Published: 30 December 2015
PLOS ONE, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146024
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Smartphone and GPS technology for free-roaming dog population surveillance - a methodological study. Published: 13 October 2015
Vet. Ital., doi: 10.12834/VetIt.233.2163.3
Free-roaming dogs (FRD) represent a potential threat to the quality of life in cities from an ecological, social and public health point of view. One of the most urgent concerns is the role of uncontrolled dogs as reservoirs of infectious diseases transmittable to humans and, above all, rabies. An estimate of the FRD population size and characteristics in a given area is the first step for any relevant intervention programme. Direct count methods are still prominent because of their non-invasive approach, information technologies can support such methods facilitating data collection and allowing for a more efficient data handling. This paper presents a new framework for data collection using a topological algorithm implemented as ArcScript in ESRI® ArcGIS software, which allows for a random selection of the sampling areas. It also supplies a mobile phone application for Android® operating system devices which integrates Global Positioning System (GPS) and Google MapsTM. The potential of such a framework was tested in 2 Italian regions. Coupling technological and innovative solutions associated with common counting methods facilitate data collection and transcription. It also paves the way to future applications, which could support dog population management systems.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Genetic characterization of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus geographical clusters in Italy. Published: 13 October 2015
Vet. Ital., doi: 10.12834/VetIt.312.1218.3
The genetic diversity of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains isolated in 199 cattle and sheep from 156 brucellosis outbreaks which occurred in 8 regions of Southern Italy in 2011, was determined using a Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis approach. The existence of possible genetic clusters was verified through a hierarchical cluster analysis based on 'single link', which is closely related to the minimum spanning tree. The Hamming weighted distance matrix was adopted in the analysis. All calculations were performed using R and the additional libraries phangorn and Cluster. For a number of clusters, ranging from 2 to 15, the average silhouette width was calculated. The number of clusters adopted was identified according to the maximum average silhouette width. For B. abortus and B. melitensis, 6 and 11 genetic clusters were identified, respectively. Three out of 6 B. abortus clusters included the 96.7% of all B. abortus isolates. Clusters were clearly geographically separated, and this highlighted the known epidemiological links among them. Brucella melitensis genotypes resulted more heterogeneous; the 3 more representative genetic clusters included 79.7% of all B. melitensis isolates. A clear geographical clusterization of genotypes is recognizable only for 1 cluster, whereas the others are more widespread across Southern Italy. The genetic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from animals may be a useful tool to better understand the epidemiology and dissemination patterns of this pathogen through host populations.