Top co-authors See all
A. Prysor Williams
75 shared publications
David M. Oliver
35 shared publications
University of Stirling
Lora E. Fleming
21 shared publications
University of Exeter Medical School
19 shared publications
University of Stirling
16 shared publications
Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC)
Distribution of Articles published per year
(2001 - 2015)
(2001 - 2015)
Total number of journals
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing envi... Published: 21 September 2015
Ambio, doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0698-9
The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.
Article 0 Reads 6 Citations Potential for Pathogen reduction in anaerobic digestion and biogas generation in Sub-Saharan Africa Published: 01 November 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy, doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.01.053
Article 0 Reads 4 Citations Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Vertebral Osteomyelitis Cases Complicated by Bac... Published: 06 August 2012
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi: 10.1128/AAC.01046-12
We report two cases of daptomycin (DAP)-nonsusceptible (DNS) vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) vertebral osteomyelitis cases complicated by bacteremia treated with high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Both patients responded rapidly and favorably to this combination. The clinical isolates from the two patients were tested post hoc in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to confirm the bactericidal activity and enhancement of daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The combination of high-dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be explored further for the treatment of DNS VISA strains.
Article 0 Reads 4 Citations Persistence, dissipation, and activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 within sand and seawater environments Published: 01 April 2007
FEMS Microbiology Ecology, doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00273.x
Runoff from agricultural land into watercourses may transport and deposit animal‐derived waste contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 onto beaches, which may in turn lead to human infection. To simulate contamination, freshwater mixed with cattle slurry containing E. coli O157:H7 was added to sand from three recreational beaches. The sand was then maintained in a dry state (nontidal) or subjected to a repeated seawater tidal simulation. The pathogen could still be recovered from all sands by day 5. Although survival of the pathogen did not statistically vary between sands of different origin under nontidal conditions, significant differences in numbers occurred between sands when subject to tidal simulation. In the tidal simulations, a considerable proportion of the E. coli O157:H7 rapidly dissipated from sand into the seawater. In a separate experiment, the activity of bioluminescent (lux‐marked) E. coli O157:H7 cells was monitored in various mixtures of contaminated runoff water and seawater over 5 days. Pathogen activity declined with increasing seawater concentration; however, cells remained viable in all treatments over the 5‐day period. The addition of nutrients to water rapidly increased pathogen activity in all treatments. Our findings highlight the resilience of E. coli O157:H7 in aquatic and marine environments.
Article 0 Reads 8 Citations Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts Published: 01 October 2006
FEMS Microbiology Ecology, doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00142.x
Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected.
Article 0 Reads 9 Citations Visual Mechanisms of Spatial Disorientation in Alzheimer's Disease Published: 01 November 2001
Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/11.11.1083
Pyramidal cells initiate the formation of dendritic arbors in a prolific burst of neurite outgrowth during early cortical development. Although morphologically mature pyramidal neurons do not normally sprout additional primary dendrites, the discovery of ectopic dendritogenesis in neuronal storage diseases has revealed that these cells do retain this ability under appropriate stimulation. The capacity for renewal of dendritogenesis has been found to exhibit a species gradient with human > cat, dog, sheep > mouse. A consistent metabolic feature of ectopic dendrite-bearing pyramidal neurons is a heightened intracellular expression of GM2 ganglioside. Elevated expression of this same glycosphingolipid has also been found to correlate with normal dendritogenesis. Immature neurons in developing cat and ferret cortex exhibit high levels of GM2 ganglioside immunoreactivity coincident with normal dendritic sprouting and a similar relationship has now been shown for human cortical development. Ultrastructural studies of all three species revealed GM2 localized to vesicles in a manner consistent with Golgi synthesis and exocytic trafficking to the somatic–dendritic plasmalemma. We propose that GM2 ganglioside functions in glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (lipid rafts) in the plasmalemma to promote dendritic initiation through modulation of specific membrane proteins and/or their associated second messenger cascades.