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Applied Sciences Webinar | Steel Health Monitoring and Rehabilitation

29 Sep 2023, 10:00 (CEST)

Steel Health Monitoring, Magnetic Properties, Residual Stresses, Residual Stress, Magnetic Properties Correlation
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Welcome from the Chair

13th Webinar of Applied Sciences

Steel Health Monitoring and Rehabilitation

A method and the corresponding instruments, able to provide surface and bulk residual stress, as well as plastic deformation distribution monitoring in ferromagnetic steels and their welds, has been developed. The method is based on the correlation of the classic reference methods of stress tensor distribution determination and monitoring on the surface and the bulk of steels, namely X-ray Bragg–Brentano diffraction (XRD-BB) and neutron diffraction (ND), respectively, with the corresponding surface or bulk magnetic permeability and magnetostriction, resulting in reference magnetic stress calibration curves (MASC) for each different type of steel. The normalization of all different MASCs with respect to the corresponding yield point and maximum permeability, respectively, resulted in a universal law of dependence of stresses on magnetic properties concerning residual stresses, thus facilitating in determining the MASC of an unknown type of steel, only by a stress–strain characterization together with in situ magnetic permeability measurement. The mentioned uncertainty and speed of measurement for surface and bulk stress measurements have been verified for 17 out of the 42 different types of steel involved in the most interesting steel applications. The stress monitoring methods are also accompanied by localized stress rehabilitation, using localized induction heating probes. The system is accompanied by the proper software code, advancing the stress monitoring and rehabilitation method into an automated stress testing and rehabilitation system, meeting the needs for modern and advanced steel production and manufacturing.

Webinar Content

In this webinar, a steel health monitoring and rehabilitation methodology is proposed. First, the correlation between residual stresses and magnetic properties in ferromagnetic steels is provided. The result of such a correlation is the monotonic dependence of residual stresses on the differential permeability, leading to the determination of magnetic stress calibration (MASC) curves. The normalization of stresses and differential permeability with the yield point of stress and maximum permeability, respectively, for each type of steel results in the collapse of all MASCs in one, following a universality law. This unique normalized MASC curve allows for the determination of the MASC in an unknown type of ferromagnetic steel following a simple stress–strain curve together with permeability measurement. Such permeability measurements can be realized with two low-energy consumption sensors, based on the Hall effect and the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect. The Hall effect arrangement can be used for single- or multi-axis sensors, while the AMR sensor can be used for three-axis measurements at a given point. The measurement of the stress gradient along the length of the steel can determine the position and the time for the generation of cracks. Furthermore, localized RF induction heating may annihilate such a gradient, thus allowing for the avoidance of crack initiation. This technology can be used by steel producers and manufacturers, as well as by steel end-users and inspectors, and can be applied for standardization.

Event Chairs

Division of Communication Electronic and Information Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Evangelos V Hristoforou, D.Eng, Ph.D, C.Eng, is Professor of Electronic Materials at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA) and director of the Laboratory of Electronic Sensors. His lab at the NTUA is performing research in materials and applications for sensors and transducers. Among other activities, he is active in energy & environment, like hydrogen production, optimized photovoltaic cells, smart wind generators, supercapacitor development, battery recycling; in bio-engineering, like multi-viral load sensors, implantable biosensors, point of care devices, theragnostics, electromagnetic stimulation; in advanced manufacturing, like steel health monitoring and rehabilitation, smart magnetometers & hydrophones, smart sensing systems. He is actively related to several industries in the field of sensors, energy and health, running industrial and research projects. He has published more than 200 papers in ISI journals (h-index=30 in Scopus and h-index=34 in Google Scholar) and has given more than 50 invited talks in international conferences. He is the President of the Hellenic NDT Association and the Chair of the European Magnetic Sensor and Actuator (EMSA) Conference.

Keynote Speakers

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

Aphrodite Ktena is a Professor at the National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. She holds a B.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering (1989, suma cum laude, University of Bridgeport, USA) and MSc / PhD degrees in Electrical and Computer Engineering (1993, Carnegie Mellon University, USA). Her research interests include hysteresis and magnetic materials modeling and characterization, sensor development and measurement technology, system modeling and optimization as well as RES and smart grid technologies. She has a long-standing collaboration with the Sensors Laboratory at the National Technical University of Athens on magnetic non-destructive testing methods for steels. Has published over 100 papers in international journals and conference proceedings, is an editor in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Magnetism and Metals, a reviewer for over 30 journals and has coordinated several EU and nationally funded projects. A member of the Technical Chamber of Greece, IEEE, and CIGRE.

Laboratory of Electronic Sensors, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

Spyridon Angelopoulos is a member of the Laboratory of Electronic Sensors of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Greece. He holds a PhD from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the NTUA. In 2012, he received his Bachelor Diploma of Engineer in Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences from the School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the NTUA, having specialized in the fields “Optoelectronics & Laser” and “Advanced Technological Materials”. In 2014, he received his MSc Degree in Automation Systems from the School of Mechanical Engineering of the NTUA, having specialized in the field of “Automatic Control and Robotics”. In 2019, he completed his PhD Thesis entitled “Design and development of magnetic sensors and their characterization devices, based on magnetic effects”. He has published 29 articles in scientific journals, he has given more than 35 conference presentations and he is the author of a book about sensors and microcontrollers. His research interests include the design and development of sensors and devices, as well as the required electronics and software.


Speaker/Presentation Time in CEST

Prof. Dr. Evangelos Hristoforou

Chair Introduction

10:00–10:10 a.m.

Prof. Aphrodite Ktena

Correlation Between Stresses and Magnetic Properties

10:10–10:30 a.m.

Dr. Spyridon Angelopoulos

Sensors to Monitor Magnetic Properties

10:30–10:50 a.m.

Prof. Dr. Evangelos Hristoforou

The Future in Steel Health Monitoring

10:50–11:10 a.m.
Q&A Session 11:10–11:25 a.m.

Prof. Dr. Evangelos Hristoforou

Closing of Webinar

11:25–11:30 a.m.

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State-of-the-Art in Structural Steel Engineering

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Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 November 2023

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Relevant Feature Papers

Sensor to Monitor Localized Stresses on Steel Surfaces Using the Magnetostrictive Delay Line Technique
by Kaiming Liang, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Georgios Lepipas, Panagiotis Tsarabaris, Aphrodite Ktena, Xiaofang Bi and Evangelos Hristoforou
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4797;

Magnetic Residual Stress Monitoring Technique for Ferromagnetic Steels
by Polyxeni Vourna, Aphrodite Ktena, Panagiotis Tsarabaris and Evangelos Hristoforou
Metals 2018, 8(8), 592;
Available online:

Residual Stress Distribution Monitoring and Rehabilitation in Ferromagnetic Steel Rods
by Kaiming Liang, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Aphrodite Ktena, Xiaofang Bi and Evangelos Hristoforou
Sensors 2022, 22(4), 1491;

Smart Stress Annihilation in Steels Using Residual Stress Distribution Monitoring and Localized Induction Heating
by Kaiming Liang, Panagiotis Tsarabaris, Aphrodite Ktena, Xiaofang Bi and Evangelos Hristoforou
Metals 2020, 10(6), 838;

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