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  • Open access
  • 49 Reads
Impact of water demand pattern on calibration process.

Mathematical models are the basic tool that simulates the operation of the Water Distribution System (WDS). Building such a tool is a complex task that requires as much detail as possible. The information needed to build a model can be divided into two categories: network data and WDSs operating data. The first group includes pipes and nodes attributes, like pipe length, pipe diameter, pipe roughness, junction elevation, and junction demand. The second category includes data specifying network performance such as pump characteristics, water demand patterns, and controls. The quality of these data will reflect the quality (compatibility) of the model.

In WDSs modeling, especially dynamic modeling, water demand patterns will have a significant impact on model accuracy. The appearance of each patterns may be different, it depends on the type of consumption (domestic, industrial) or analyzed period. Consumption patterns  defining the  WDSs operational work. Changes in water demand patterns may affect the accuracy of the model calibration. The real WDS model were used in this paper. The three simulations were analyzed, each for another period: one year, six months, and one month. Junction demand and water demand patterns were generated from a GIS (Geographic Information System) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) database.

  • Open access
  • 180 Reads
Adsorption of methyl orange by zinc oxide synthesized via a facile precipitation method

The present study deals with the preparation and characterization of zinc oxide for adsorption characteristics of methyl orange (MO). The influence of initial dye concentration, contact time and adsorbent dose on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption was analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. In order to study the kinetic aspects of the adsorption of MO, pseudo-second order were employed. The results confirm the feasibility of ZnO adsorption process of MO.

  • Open access
  • 146 Reads
Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by WO3 prepared via a very simple precipitation method under visible light irradiation

Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple precipitation method and utilized as photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under LED-visible light irradiation. This photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy to determine phase, morphology, vibration mode, and optical property.

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