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HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS Profiling and Anti-Biofilm Potential of Eucalyptus sideroxylon Flowers
* 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1
1  Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562, Egypt
2  Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
3  AgroBioSciences Research Division, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Ben-Guerir 43150, Morocco
Academic Editor: Fernando Benavente (registering DOI)

The development of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains is a worldwide emerging problem that needs a global solution. Exploring new natural antibiofilm agents is one of the most important alternative therapies in combating bacterial infections. This study aimed at testing the antimicrobial potential of Eucalyptus sideroxylon flowers extract (ESFE) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans prior to testing the antibiofilm activity against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. ESFE demonstrated antimicrobial activity and promising inhibition activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) biofilm formation up to 95.9% (p < 0.05) at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL and eradicated C. albicans biofilm formation up to 71.2% (p < 0.05) at a concentration of 0.7 mg/mL. LC-MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eighty-three secondary metabolites: 21 phloroglucinol, 18 terpenes, 16 flavonoids, 7 oleuropeic acid derivatives, 7 ellagic acid derivatives, 6 gallic acid derivatives, 3 phenolic acids, 3 fatty acids and 2 miscellaneous. In conclusion, E. sideroxylon is a rich source of effective constituents that promote its valorization as a promising candidate in the management of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections.

Keywords: Eucalyptus sideroxylon; LC-MS/MS; biofilm formation; multidrug-resistant bacterial infections