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LED lighting in vertical farming systems enhances bioactive compounds and productivity of vegetables crops
* 1, 2 , * 3, 4 , * 5 , * 2
1  University of Almeria
2  CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia, Spain
3  Universidad de Almería, Spain.
4  Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain.
5  CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia, Spain
Academic Editor: Juan A. Fernández


One of the greatest challenges of modern agriculture is to produce more with less, to producing healthier, safer food under sustainable systems, this includes a focus on increasing the efficiency of finite resources such as water and nutrients and increasing the sustainable productivity of crops under innovative systems with LED lights on soilless culture. The aim of this research was to perform a bibliometric analysis on the benefits of vertical farming production systems on the nutraceutical quality parameters of horticultural crops, additionally, the main parameters used to evaluate the quality and productivity of crops were identified. The methodology and results were analysed over a period of 4 years using the different quality parameters of lighting-LED as the main light source. The main plant species studied were lettuce, cabbage, cucumber, and spinach. The results showed that use of 16 h light photoperiods increased nutritional compounds such as antioxidants, phenols, and total sugar concentration, but in general, a moderately positive effect on plant growth and development was observed. The most used light intensities were between the range of 150 to 300 µmol m-2 s-1, and the specific spectrum-LED peaks between 450-495 nm (blue) and 620-750 nm (red and far-red). Therefore, the use of LED vertical farming systems as an alternative to increase the nutritional parameters of horticultural plants is a viable option since, in a short period of time and without geographical differentiation, it contributes to the production of nutraceutical compounds. It also contributes to a reduction of natural resource use, such as water, since one hundred percent of the research was carried out on the crops through hydroponic systems, which have the capacity to reuse water and nutrients.

Keywords: led, vertical-farming, bibliometric analysis, photoperiod, light intensity