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An ethnoveterinary investigation into medicinal and aromatic plants used to treat livestock diseases by the local communities of the Rif, north of Morocco.
* 1 , 2
1  Agri-Food and Health Laboratory (AFHL), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques of Settat; Hassan First University; Address: Po Box 382, 26000 Settat, Morocco.
2  Plant, Animal Productions and Agro-industry Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, B.P. 133 14000, Kenitra, Morocco.
Academic Editor: Maria Emília Sousa (registering DOI)

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Phytotherapy has been playing a significant role in the livestock health care system for a long, especially in remote areas. This study aimed to document the therapeutic uses of plant species practised by the Rif's indigenous people to treat various veterinary health diseases.

Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires, field walks, and group discussions were conducted from June 2016 - to October 2019 to collect the data. Quantitative indices include Plant Part Value (PPV), Use value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Popularity Level (RPL), Rank Order Priority (ROP), Jaccard Index (JI), and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were used for the data analysis.

Results: A total of 300 medicinal plants belonging to 205 genera and 67 families have been recorded with ethnoveterinary uses. Dominant families are Asteraceae (33 species), Lamiaceae (28 species), and Fabaceae (24 species). The reported illness was classified into 4 disease categories based on ICF values, and the highest number of plants was reported to treat internal parasites (ICF=0.967). Leaves were the most consistently used parts (PPV=48.4%). Aloysia citrodora Palau. (RPL=) had the highest RPL level (1.15).

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the local people of Rif hold rich ethnoveterinary knowledge to cure livestock diseases. Plant species with high FL, RPL, and UV values should be screened for comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies to validate the ethnomedicinal knowledge.

Keywords: Ethnoveterinary; Health diseases; Herbal medicine; Livestock; Medicinal plants.