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Chemical and nutritional characterization of by-products from the wine industry. Source of healthy ingredients for the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods
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1  Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense, Spain
2  Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3  Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense, Spain.
4  REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Academic Editor: Arun Bhunia


The food industry generates large amounts of organic waste, which generally accumulates in landfills or is burned, causing environmental problems. However, many studies indicate that this waste is rich in bioactive compounds, so it could be revalued for transformation into high value-added products, thus favoring the circular and sustainable economy, reducing environmental impact and climate change. It is estimated that the wine industry (Vitis vinifera L.) produces up to 30% by weight of waste in relation to the material used, these include skins, seeds and pomace, which are dietary sources rich in phenolic compounds, minerals, fatty acids and fiber which have shown beneficial activities for health, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and even anticancer activities, both in vitro and in vivo. In this sense, a chemical characterization (profile of minerals, phenolic compounds and fatty acids) was carried out in dehydrated and ground seeds of Vitis vinifera L, and in the oily extract, obtained by supercritical fluids (SCFE) at 20 MPa. The quantification of minerals was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), the identification and quantification of the phenolic profile was performed by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the profile of fatty acids studied by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The main minerals found were calcium, potassium and magnesium. Emphasizing the calcium 22.66 g/kg in the oily extract compared to the seeds 7.8 g/kg. Potassium concentration was 3.9 g/kg in seeds and 1.53 g/kg in the extract, while 1.4 g/kg and 0.59 g/kg of magnesium corresponded to seeds and extract, respectively. Regarding the polyphenol profile, the seeds mainly contain dihydroxybenzoic acid 42.580 mg/kg, catechin 81.05 mg/kg, quercetin 4.856 mg/kg and resveratrol 1 mg/kg as main phenols, while the oily extract mainly presents oleacein 156.942 mg/kg, hydroxytyrosol 10.226 mg/kg and Tyrosol 8.644 mg/kg. Additionally, a profile of healthy fatty acids was obtained, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) being the majority fraction 71.4%, highlighting oleic acids 16868 mg/kg, and linoleic acid 82606 mg/kg. Our characterization shows that these by-products are a source of bioactive ingredients, which provide important beneficial effects for health, mainly for the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress and that can be used in the formulation of functional foods or nutraceutical products. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm the potential in humans and prove the safety of these ingredients.

Keywords: Vitis vinifera L.; grape pomace; phytochemicals; bioactivity; extraction; food industry; pharmaceutical; phenolic compounds