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Bioactive ingredients of custard apple (Annona cherimola Mill.) by-products as an industrial interest for the development of products with high added value

Custard apple (Annona cherimola Mill.) is a tropical fruit source of bioactive compounds whose main producer worldwide is Spain, specifically, Granada. As a consequence of its processing, the food industry generates large amounts of by-products such as peels and seeds, which represent an economic expense and a great environmental impact. These by-products are rich in phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging power. The revaluation of the inedible parts of the custard apple is an ideal option for obtaining bioactive ingredients and their subsequent use by the food and pharmaceutical industry for the development of products with high added value.

The objective of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of cherimoya by-products rich in phenolic compounds for the development of cosmeceuticals. For this, the total content of phenolic compounds was determined from the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their antioxidant capacity was examined by the FRAP, TEAC and ORAC tests. In addition, the ability of custard apple by-product extracts to inhibit HOCl and NO · radicals was evaluated and the inhibition capacity of different enzymes related to skin aging such as hyaluronidase, collagenase, tyrosinase, elastase, xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase was also determined. Finally, the major phenolic compounds present in the custard apple peel and seed samples were characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

The results show that both the peel and seed of custard apple have a strong potential against oxidative stress and inflammation. Its phytochemical profile due to the presence of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quinic acid, vanillic acid, etc.) and its potential, make both industrial by products attractive bioactive ingredients for the manufacture of functional food and cosmeceuticals fot the health.

Keywords: Custard apple; by-products; antioxidant; HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS; phenolic compounds