Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace is a residue derived from the winemaking process, which contains bioactive compounds displaying noteworthy health-promoting properties. A characterization of the water extract from grape pomace from Montepulciano d’Abruzzo variety (Villamagna doc) was conducted, and the bioactive phenolic compounds were quantified through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenolic composition and protective effects of a water extract of grape pomace (WEGP) in colorectal cancer cell line SW480 and in isolated mouse colon exposed to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The extract decreased SW-480 cell viability, as well as vascular endothelial factor A (VEGFA), hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF1α), and transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) LPS-induced gene expression. Moreover, the extract inhibited mRNA levels of nuclear factor kB (NFkB), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and interferon (IFN)γ, in isolated colon. Conversely, WEGP increased the gene expression of antioxidant catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the same model. The modulatory effects exerted by WEGP could be related, at least in part, to the phenolic composition, with particular regards to the catechin level. Grape pomace could be considered as a valuable source of bioactive extracts and phytochemicals with protective effects in the colon.
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